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Full text of "Surrey archaeological collections"

Presented by O k c. 




Ey Xibris 

Surrey 

Hrcba^oloQical Societ\> 

Date y^9^:^ri^..S,,^ ^^^^Z- 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/surreyarchaeol61surr 



Surrey 
Archaeological Collections 

Relating to the 
History and Antiquities of the County 

published by the 
SURREY ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY 



VOL. 6i 



Honorary Editor: E. E. Harrison, M.A., F.S.A. 




THE SURREY ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

CASTLE ARCH, GUILDFORD 



1964 



The Council of the Surrey Arch^ological Society desires it to be 
distinctly understood that it is not responsible for any statement or 
opinions expressed in the Collections, the authors of the communica- 
tions and articles being alone accountable for the same. 

In particular, the method of transcription of documents, their 
transliteration and spelling are left to the compiler of the contribution, 
the Honorary Editor being in no way responsible for the method 
adopted. 

GIFTS AND LOANS TO THE SOCIETY 

Members and friends desiring to give or lend books, documents or 
objects of antiquarian interest to the Society for the Society's Library 
at Castle Arch, or for deposit in Guildford Museum, are earnestly 
requested to send such gifts or loans to the Hon. Secretary, Surrey 
Archaeological Society, Castle Arch, Guildford, with a covering letter 
stating whether the objects sent are a gift or loan to the Society. As 
regards articles intended for the Museum, these should be accom- 
panied by full particulars, such as where found, date of finding, etc. 
Members wishing to leave money, books or articles to the Society by 
Will are asked to make use of the f olloiving Clause : 

"I GIVE to the Surrey Archaeological Society of Guildford free of 
duty the sum of £ (words and figures) (for books or other articles, a 
description is necessary). AND I DECLARE that the receipt of the 
Treasurer or other proper officer of the Society shall be a complete 
discharge therefor." 

The Honorary Editor will be glad to receive contributions of county 
interest, either in article form, or in notes, with appropriate illustrations. 
Copy should be in typescript, on one side of the page only, and should 
be complete in every particular for publication. The Editorial 
Committee reserves the right to file at Castle Arch articles too long 
for publication, and facilities will be given for obtaining microphoto- 
graphic copies of such material. 



CONTENTS 



List of Officers and Council ....... 

Local Secretaries ......... 

Abbreviations .......... 

Articles : 

Local Bronze Implements in Kingston-upon-Thames Museum. By 
D. C. Devenish, B.A 

Interim Report on the Excavation of a Late Bronze Age Homestead 
in Weston Wood, Albury, Surrey. By Joan M. Harding 

The North Downs Trackway in Surrey. By Rev. H. W. R. Lillie, 
S.J., M.A 

The Atwood Iron Age and Romano-British Site, Sanderstead, 1960. 
By R. I. Little ......... 

Coats of Arms in Surrey Churches (Part V). By H. W. Pointer, 
M.A 

The Civil War in the Hundred of Godalming. By F. G. Mellersh, 
M.A., F.C.A 

Hatchford Park and Church. By R. R. Langham-Carter 

The Parish Church of St. Andrew, Farnham. By A. R. Dufty, 
A.R.I.B.A., F.S.A 

Notes : 

Three Flint Implements from Surrey . 

Dry Hill Camp, Lingfield, Surrey 

Iron Age and Romano-British Pottery from Compton 

Thirteenth-Century Jug from Quarry Street, Guildford 

Thirteenth-Century Jug from Guildford High Street 

Medieval Pot-Quern from Shere . 

Medieval Pottery from the International Stores, Guildford High 
Street ..... 

Rood Pictures in Thames Ditton 
Excavations ..... 
Obituaries ..... 

Reviews and Notices .... 
Index ...... 



Page 
ix, X 



1 
10 

18 

29 

39 

51 
80 

86 

99 
100 
101 
102 
102 
103 

103 
105 

108 

111 

113 

117 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Bronze Implements from Kingston Museum: 

Fig. 1 . Iron Age Pot page 2 

Fig. 2. Swords (sections). Spearheads, Chisel, Palstave . 3 

Plate I {upper) . Hoard from George Lane Gravel Pit . following index 

r {lower). Hoard from Kingston (?) . 

II. Swords and Knife . 

Ill {upper) Spearheads and Shafts 

III {lower). Two Chapes 

IV. Palstaves and Socketed Axes 



Late Bronze Age Homestead in Weston Wood: 

Fig. 1 . Sketch Map of Weston Wood 

Fig. 2. Plan of Excavation 

Plate Va. Furrows 

\b. Quern 

Via. Burnished Bowl 

VI6. Storage Pot . 



page 11 
facing page 14 
following index 



North Downs Trackway in Surrey: 

Fig. 1 . Trackway on Reigate Hill . . . page 20 

Fig. 2. Passage from Marden Park to Laundry Cottage . 22 

Fig. 3. Passage from CoUey Hill to Merstham Down 23 

Fig. 4. Crossing of River Mole ..... 25 



Atwood Iron Age and Romano-British Site: 
Fig. 1 . Plan of Site . 

Fig. 2. Iron Age Potter^' . 

Fig. 3. Romano-British Pottery . 

Coats of .\rms in Surrey Churches: 
Arms of Carew 



31 
32 
34 



43 



Civil War in the Hundred of Godalming: 

Plate VII. Account Book of Philip Mellersh, 

Warrant ..... 

The Parish Church of St. Andrew, Farnham: 

Plan 

Exterior from North-East 
Interior, looking west, about 1860 
Interior, looking east, 1964 
East End of Nave in 1828 
West End in 1828 . 
Foundation of North-West Pier of 
Central Crossing .... 
South- West Vaulting Shaft in Chancel 
North-West Vaulting Shaft in Chancel 
Chancel from North Chapel 
Chancel from South Chapel 



Frontispiece 
Plate Villa. 
Plate VIII6. 

IXfl. 

1X6. 

Xa. 

X6. 
Xc. 
XIa. 
Xlfe. 



following index 

facing page 98 
following index 



Notes : 



Fig. 
Fig. 



Fig. 3. No. 1. 
No. 2. 
4. 
5. 



Fig. 
Fig. 



Plate XII. 



ILLUSTRATIONS— Con^rf. 

Flint Implements from Surrey page 99 

Pottery from Compton . . . .101 

Jug from Quarry Street, Guildford . . .103 

Jug from Guildford High Street . .103 

Pot-Quern from Shere . . .104 

Finds from International Stores, Guildford 106 

Rood Picture in Thames Ditton following index 



SURREY ARGH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY 



CASTLE ARCH, GUILDFORD 




President : 
Miss KATHLEEN M. KENYON, C.B.E., D.Lit., F.B.A., F.S.A. 



Vice-Presidents : 
HER GRACE. HELEN, DUCHESS OF NORTHUMBERLAND 

The Right Hon. the EARL OF IVEAGH, K.G., C.B., C.M.G. 

Colonel the Right Hon. the EARL OF ONSLOW, M.C., T.D., D.L. 

The Right Hon. the EARL OF MUNSTER, P.C, K.B.E. 

LORD HAMILTON OF DALZELL, M.C. 

C. J. A. EVELYN 

L D. MARGARY, M.A., F.S.A. 

F. E. BRAY 

Dr. J. F. NICHOLS, M.C, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A. 

R. H. G. LEVESON GOWER 

A. W. G. LOWTHER, A.R.I.B.A., F.S.A. 

R. A. SKELTON, M.A., F.S.A. 

Mrs. D. GRENSIDE 

Professor S. S. FRERE, M.A., V.-P.S.A. 



Council : 



Retire 1965 

The Viscountess HANWORTH 

N. P. THOMPSON 

J. G. W. LEWARNE 

b. J. TURNER 

Captain M. A. WILSON, R.N.R. 

Retire 1967 

Miss E. M. DANCE, M.A., Ph.D. 
Miss J. M. HARRIES, B.A., F.L.A. 
F. G. GILBERT-BENTLEY, 

F.R.A.S., F.S.A. (Scot.) 
R. ROBERTSON-MACKAY, F.S.A. 

(Scot.) 
R. S. SIMMS, F.S.A. 
A. S. GILBERT. 



Retire 1966 

Miss M. GOLLANCZ, M.A. 
F. A. HASTINGS 
A. BUCKLAND KENT 
Miss JOAN M. HARDING 



Retire 1968 

W. C. KNOX, B.A. 

K. W. E. GRAVETT, M.Sc. (Eng.) 

Major H. C. PATRICK, D.L. 

A. J. CLARK. F.S.A. 

R. W. McDOWALL, M.A., F.S.A. 

T. S. MERCER 



Trustees : 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY 

THE HONORARY TREASURER OF THE SOCIETY 



Honorary Secretarv : 
E. S. WOOD, B.A., F.S.A. 



Honorary Treasurer : 
F. G. MELLERSH, M.A., F.C.A. 



Honorary Editor: 

E. E. HARRISON, M.A., F.S.A. 

Saunderites, Charterhouse, Godalming 



Honorary Legal Adviser : 
S. E. D. FORTESCUE 



Honorary Librarian : 
Miss P. M. St. J. BREWER, A.L.A. 



Honorary Auditor: 
A. A. WYLIE, F.C.A. 



COMMITTEES 

Library Committee : 

T. E. C. Walker, Chairman; Miss M. D. Liggett, B.A., F.L.A. ; Miss E. M. 
Dance; E. E. Harrison; J. L. Nevinson; Miss P. M. Brewer, Honorary 
Librarian. 

Excavations Committee : 

Sheppard S. Frere, Chairman; A. W. G. Lowther; E. S. Wood; 
J. McCulloch; A. J. Clark; the Alice Holt Pottery Research Group; 
Lady Hanworth; F. A. Hastings; Miss Joan M. Harding; D. J. Turner; 
N. P. Thompson, Honorary Excavations Organiser . 



Visits Committee : 

R. S. SIMMS, Chairman: Major H. C. Patrick, D.L. ; Captain M. A. Wilson, 
R.N.R. ; H. V. H. Everard; K. W. E. Gravett; R. Robertson-Mackay; 
Mrs. R. K. Chiles; R. J. .\sh, Secretary. 



Honorary Local Secretaries : 
For addresses of Local Secretaries consult Members' list 



Banstead Urban District 

Beddington, WalJington, Carshalton 

Bleichingley, Burstow, Home, Godstone . 

Capel, South Abinger, Ockley, Newdigate 

Caterham, Chelsham .... 

Chertsey and Egham Urban District 

Compton, Puttenham, Wanborough, Worplesdon 

Coulsdon, Purley ..... 

Cranleigh, Wonersh, Bramley, Dunsfold, Alfold 
Ewhurst ...... 

Croydon ...... 

Dorking, Holmwood, Betchworth, Mickleham 

East and West Clandon, Send 

Epsom, Ewell, Sutton, Cheam 

Esher Urban District .... 

Farnham, Frensham, Dockenfield, Tilford, Seale 
Ash, Normandy .... 

Frimley, Camberley, Windlesham, Chobham 

Godalming, Witley, Peperharow, Elstead, Ham 
bledon, Hascombe, Shackleford, Busbridge 

Guildford Borough .... 

Haslemere, Thursley, Chiddingfold . 

Horley, Charlwood .... 

Horsley, Ripley, Ockham, Wisley, Effingham 

Kingston, Surbiton, Maiden, Coombe 

Lambeth, Camberwell .... 

Leatherkead Urban District, Headley 

Lingfield, Crowhurst, South Tandridge 

Oxted, Limpsfield, North Tandridge, Titsey 
Tatsfield ...... 

Reigate, Buckland, Leigh, Nutfield . 
Richmond, Barnes .... 

Shalford, Artington, St. Martha 

Southwark, Bermondsey 

Tillingbourne Valley, Albury, Shere, North 
Abinger, Wotton .... 

Walton, Weybridge .... 

Wandsworth, Battersea .... 

Wimbledon, Mitcham, Merton, Morden 

Woking, Pirbright, Bisley 



M. A. Hicks. 
D. J. Turner. 
F. E. Bray. 
Mrs. J. Banks. 
J. C. Batley. 

W. T. BULT. 

J. C. Batley. 

H. R. Tadgell. 
R. C. Gill, LL.B. 
Mrs. J. Banks. 

P. Shearman, F.S.A. 
T. E. C. Walker, F.S.A. 

Major H. C. Patrick. 

Miss H. Rendle, 
Camberley Museum. 

Apply to Castle Arch. 
Dr. G. R. Rolston. 

F. N. LiMMER. 

F. E. Manning. 

A. W. G. Lowther, F.S. a. 



R. H. G. Leveson 

GOWER. 

A. Buckland Kent. 

G. Turner, Richmond 
Public Library. 

F. G. Gilbert-Bentley. 



Dr. G. I. Watson. 
A. G. Martin. 
The Rev. N. D. Gill. 
D. J. Turner. 
N. P. Thompson. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Antiq. Journ. 

Arch. 

Arch. Cant. 
Arch. J. 

B.M. 

Berks. Arch. Journal 

Coll. Top. et Gen. 

G.M.R. 

J.B.A.A. . 

J.R.S. 

M. & B. . 

N.G.R. 

Nat. Grid Ref. . 

Preh. Farnh. 

Proc. Hants. F.C. 

P.P.S. 

P.R.O. 

R.C.H.M. . 

Sx.A.C. 

Sx.A.S. 

Sy.A.C. 

Sy.A.S. 

V.C.H. 



The Antiquaries Journal, Society of Antiquaries of 
London. 

Archcsologia, Society of Antiquaries of London. 

ArchcBologia Cantiana, Kent Archaeological Society. 

The ArchcBological Journal, Royal Archaeological 
Institute. 

British Museum. 

Berkshire ArchcBological Journal. 

Collectania Topographica et Genealogica. 

Guildford Muniment Room, Guildford Museum. 

Journal of the British ArchcBological Association. 

Journal of Roman Studies, Society for the Pro- 
motion of Roman Studies. 

Manning and Brav, History and Antiquities of 
Surrey. (1804-14)'. 

> National Grid Reference. 

A Survey of the Prehistory of the Farnham District, 
Sy.A.S.. 1939. 

Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club. 

Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. 

Public Record Office. 

Royal Commission on Historical Monuments. 

Sussex ArchcBological Collections. 

Sussex Archaeological Society. 

Surrey ArchcBological Collections. 

Surrey Archaeological Society. 

Victoria County History. 

And see special list on p. 73. 



LOCAL BRONZE IMPLEMENTS IN 
KINGSTON-UPON-THAMES MUSEUM 

BY 

D. C. DEVENISH, B.A. 

KINGSTON-UPON-THAMES Museum contains an interesting 
collection of bronze tools which has not hitherto been 
'^ described in detail, although some items have been mentioned 
in earher publications. The entire collection is illustrated here 
except an axe of Breton type from Brittany. 

HOARDS 
(a) Nos. 506-520. Fifteen Pieces of Copper Cake (Plate I, lower). 
Probably local; part of the late Aid. F. Gould's collection, 
donated 28 September 1904. These are shown to be copper by 
their reddish colour; Bronze Age metal cakes are usually 99°/o 
pure copper (Smith & Bhn-Stoyle, 1959). The two largest. 
No. 506 (3 lbs.) and No. 507 (lib. 15 oz.), come from a bun-shaped 
cake of diameter about 20 cm. (8 ins.) which would have weighed 
about 12 lbs. It is not certain, however, that they, or any of the 
others, are from the same cake. Total weight 7 lbs. 15 oz. This is 
small as hoards of copper cake go; Fox mentions two of over 
i cwt. (Fox, 1923, 49). 

{b) Nos. 1092-1094. (Plate I, upper). 

Discovery 

'. . . found and collected by Mr. C. H. Glutton in 1869 and 1870, 
and presented by him to H.R.H. the late Duke of Cambridge, who 
presented them to the Museum of Christ's Hospital School, Horsham . . . ; 
lately extra class room accommodation was required at the school, and 
the Kingston specimens among others passed into the hands ot a local 
builder who wished to dispose of them. By good fortune Dr. W. E. St.L. 
Finny heard of them and went at once to Horsham, secured them, and 
brought them back to Kingston ... a mass of bronze from the bronze 
smith's melting pot, from which implements were made, a bronze awl, 
a bronze socketed celt, a fragment of bronze sword and a tubular 
implement of bronze; and several other bronze objects which have now 
disappeared . . .' (Offprint from newspaper, source unknown, in the 
Museum). 

This is the hoard hsted by J. Evans (Evans J., 1881, 423 and 
467). The find spot was George Lane Gravel Pits, now a golf 
course. From examination of maps of the area, Mr. J. Hampton 
of the Ordnance Survey has been able to work out the area of the 
gravel pit dug at that time so that it is possible to give an almost 
exact grid reference for this hoard, viz., TQ(51)201703-5. 

1 



2 BRONZE IMPLEMENTS IN KINGSTON MUSEUM 

Contents. When part of the Duke of Cambridge's George Lane 
Gravel Pits collection was exhibited to the Royal Archseological 
Institute on 2 April 1869, by Walter H. TregeUas, the following 
meted objects were shown: 'Portions of a bronze sword, and of a 
bronze javeUn or blade, also part of a bronze socketed celt, and 
another object of the same description that has a fragment of 
cake-copper forced into the cavity of the socket . . .' {Arch. J., 
XXVI (1869), 288). According to the Victoria History of the 
County of Surrey, Vol. I, 241, the hoard included 'two socketed 
celts, one sword, one spearhead and one piece of copper-cake,' 

The objects now in the Museum are: — 
No. 1092. Circular copper-cake weighing 2 lbs. 2 oz. 
No. 1093A. Small bronze awl, probably part of the smith's 

equipment rather than scrap (Fig. 2). 
No. 1093B. Socket from a large riveted spearhead. 
No. 1093C. Small fragment of a leaf-shaped sword, badly flawed 

in casting. 
No. 1094. Socketed axe; piece missing out of side. 

It cannot be absolutely certain that all the objects were in 
direct association when found, but they are all probably part 
of a founder's hoard, in spite of Whimster's view to the contrary 
(Whimster, 1931, 80). 

I095A 




Fig. 1.— Iron Age Pot from George Lane Gravel Pits. (J) 

Date. All the above objects belong to the Late Bronze Age, while 
the axe is a late t5^e within it. However, 'Neolithic' pottery was 
found at the same time; this 'Neohthic' pottery is actually of Iron 
A type (Fig. 1). It is possible that this hoard should be dated to 
the beginning of that period. 

CASUAL FINDS 

Acquisition 

With the exception of spearhead No. 1063 which was donated by 
Aid. Dr. W. E. St.L. Finny, J. P., on 20 October 1929, these all come 
from two collections of miscehaneous material. 

(i) Nos. 1-33: part of the late Aid. F. Gould's collection 

donated on 28 September 1904. 
(ii) Nos. 716-754: formerly the property of Mr. W. H. Roots, 
F.R.S.E. and purchased by the Museum on 
30 April 1907. 



BRONZE IMPLEMENTS IN KINGSTON MUSEUM 



Provenance 

No details are known of the exact provenance of any of the finds 
nor whether any were together when found. With the exception of 
the unlooped palstave No. 737 (and perhaps also No. 749) they were 
all found in the Thames. Probably all (except No. 737) were found 
at Kingston, although this is not certain in every case. 

Swords (Plate II and Fig. 2). 

No. 25. Rapier of Group I (Trump, 1962). With two rivet holes 

and two notches. Estimated original length 30 cm. (1 foot). 

Date: c. 14-13 Cent. B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 
No. 751. Rapier of Group II, Wandsworth Class (Trump, 1962). 

(The Wandsworth Class was a local product of the London area.) 

Two rivets 20 by 9 mm. 

Date: c. 12 Cent. B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 



25 



751 



74 8 



754 




739 



o 



V 



I093A 



Fig. 2.- 



-Mid-Sections OF Swords. Decorated Spearhead. Bronze Chisel. 
Casting Seam. [Reading from left to right. J (J) 

No. 748. Rixheim I Lambeth Sword 

As pointed out by Wheeler (Wheeler, 1927) this is almost 
identical with one from the Thames at Lambeth, now in the 
London Museum (No. A 19785). This latter is also illustrated 
by Brewis (Brewis, 1923, Fig. 15) and figured by Miss Trump 
(Trump, 1962, Fig. 17). Miss Trump classifies it as a Ballintober 
sword, but it does not bear much resemblance to her other 
Ballintober swords (nor is it like the Ballintober sword of 
Hodges) (Hodges, 1956, 37, and 1957, 64) ; it is clearly a type of 
rapier wliercas the BallintoJjer sword is a type of leaf-shaped 
sword, even if a crude variety. It comes much closer to the 
Rixheim swords, one of which was found at Eriswell, Suffolk, 
with Group III Lisburn Class rapiers (Briscoe and Fumess, 1955, 
218). 



BRONZE IMPLEMENTS IN KINGSTON MUSEUM 

Mr. C. B. Burgess has told me in correspondence that he 
classifies this kind of rapier as the Lambeth sword. He considers 
it to be a development from the Rixheim sword and related to 
the Rosnoen Group sword. One of the swords from the 
Pennavem, Rosnoen, hoard figured by Giot has a tang with 
four rivet-holes like the Lambeth sword (Giot, 1960, Fig. 46). 
Date: 1100-950 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 

No. 747. Ballintober I Chelsea Sword 

The butt end of the tang has been broken short ; one can be 
reasonably certain that there never was a pommel, since 
swords which have no rivet-holes through the flanges (Evans, J., 
1881, Figs. 346 and 357; Grimes, 1951, Fig. 71) lack pommels. 

As pointed out by Wheeler (Wheeler, 1927) this also is very 
close to a sword in the London Museum, to wit No. A6366 from 
Thames, Chelsea; this latter is also figured by Miss Trump 
(Trump, 1962, Fig. 19). It is also very close to another found 
in the Thames, Kingston, and figured by Biden (Biden, 1852). 

It should be noted that this sword has a flatfish section, not 
the flat lozenge section of the true Ballintober sword. Mr. 
Burgess classifies this type as the Chelsea sword. He regards 
both the Chelsea and the Ballintober swords as developments 
of the Lambeth sword under the influence of the leaf-shaped 
sword. 
Date: c. 1050-950 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 

No. 749. Type 'G'jHallstatt 'A' Sword (Peake, 1922; Cowen, 1951). 

Compare with the one in the Meldreth hoard {Inventaria 
ArchcBologica, G.B. 13, No. 3), the ones from Minden and 
Gentbrugge (considered to be of British make) (Cowen, 1952) 
and the one from the Tyne figured in the Later Prehistoric 
Antiquities (British Museum, 1953) and by Peake (Peake, 1922). 

The tip (about 1.5 cm.) is missing and the edges have about 
forty nicks hacked into them ; this damage must be intentional 
and not the result of use. 
Date: c. 650-450 B.C. Probably from Thames, Kingston. 

No. 754. Carp' s-TonguejBeachy Head Sword 

It was at one time thought that carp's-tongue swords were 
of Alpine origin (Evans, E. E., 1930) ; however they were almost 
certainly a North Spanish/West French derivation from the 
leaf -shaped sword (Savory, 1948). It was formerly considered 
that they were imported into this country as scrap metal 
(Brewis, 1923). Their high lead content, however, would make 
it appear more likely that they were made here (Smith and 
Bhn-Stoyle, 1959). 

The tip had already been snapped when discovered, but 
nevertheless this is one of the best preserved specimens recorded 
in Britain. 
Date: c. 750-450 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 



BRONZE IMPLEMENTS IN KINGSTON MUSEUM 5 

Spearheads (Plate III, upper). 

No. 752. Spearhead Class III A (Greenwell and Brewis, 1909), i.e. 
with ribbed wings and loops at the base of the blade, cf . their 
fig. 22 from Thames, Teddington. 

E. E. Evans Type (1), i.e. with loops attached to the ribs 
(Evans. E. E., 1933), for which he quotes J. Evans, from 
Isleham Fen (Evans, J.. 1881, Fig. 406). 

The butt end of the socket is missing, also the connection 
between the blade and the socket, so that its original length is 
uncertain. The top end of the .shaft was found inside the spear- 
head. It is in the shape of a rod whittled almost to a point but 
leaving a flat tip of diameter 3 mm., which would reach to 
within 9 cm. of the tip of the spearhead (assuming that the 
unstained part of the shaft was inside the spearhead and the 
stained part at the fracture). Its diameter at the maximum is 
13-5 mm., so that it must have shnmk about 1 mm. but other- 
wise it is almost as good as new. 
Date: c. 1300-1100 B.C. From Thames, Kmgston. 

No. 1063. Spearhead of Class III A (Greenwell and Brewis, 1909) 
Type (1) (Evans, E. E., 1933). 

'In July, 1929, a Bronze Age spearhead was recovered from the 
Thames at Kingston. It has a leaf-shaped [sic] blade, a strong central 
tubular rib with grooves either side of the rib, and it is 13 inches long and 
2 inches across the widest part. Some of the wood of the original shaft 
was adhering to the spearhead when found but unfortunately it was 
removed and lost.' [Sy.A.C. XXXVIII (1930), 227.) 

It is in two fragments, clearly broken up as scrap. Its 
original length would have been about 50 cm. (20 ins.). 
Date: c. 1300-1100 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 

No. 753. Spearhead of Class V (Greenwell and Brewis, 1909), i.e. 
leaf-shaped and riveted, cf. one from Thames, Isleworth 
(Greenwell and Brewis, 1909, Fig. 31). 

The junction between the blade and the socket is missing so 
that its original length is uncertain ; it is possible that there were 
once loops but it is most unlikely. There are traces of wood on 
the inside of the socket. 
Date: c. 1000-700 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 

No. 16. Spearhead of Class V (Greenwell and Brewis, 1909). 

Tip ripped off, originally about 22 cm. (9 ins.) long. Note the 
dents just below break. 

The top of the shaft has been preserved in good condition, 
although not as well as No. 752 since its diameter has shrunk 
from 18 to 11 mm. It was whittled to a point. Although the 
socket has a rivet hole, it was clearly not used, as there is no 
mark on the shaft. 
Date: c. 800-500 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 



BRONZE IMPLEMENTS IN KINGSTON MUSEUM 

No. 4. Spearhead Class VB (Greenwell and Brewds, 1909). i.e. 
hollow leaf -shaped (Fig. 2). 

Tip ripped oH, originally about 22 cm. (9 ins.) long. Note 
the nicks cut out of the edges. 

The walls are much thicker and stronger than is normally 
the case with a hollow spearhead. The surface is stepped. 

The shaft, of which a warped fragment about 6 cm. long was 
found in the blade, was held to the head by a bronze rivet 4.5 
mm. wide, protruding on one side 4 mm. (Bronze rivets, 
especially protruding ones, are usucdly confined to Class VI, 
barbed, spearheads ; normally a wooden or bone peg would have 
been used). On the other side there is an extra rivet hole 
(empty), 2 mm. across. 

Decoration 

This spearhead is exceptionally finely decorated; unfor- 
tunately due to corrosion the decoration can only be seen with 
difficulty, and hardly at all on the photograph. Nevertheless 
the following patterns can be discerned: — 

(i) A hne of dots at the step between the midrib and the blade 

surface, on each side and face, making four in all. 
A line of dots at the step between the blade surface and 

the edge, on each side and face, making four in all. 
A double band of dots around the socket at the base of the 

blade, below which are: — 
Five bands round the socket consisting respectively of 4, 

3, 3, 4 and 4 grooves picked out with dots inside. 
A single band of dots round the base of the socket. 
A double circle of dots round each end of the rivet — but 

not round the empty rivet hole. 
Date: c. 800-500 B.C. From Thames, probably Kingston. 



(iii 



(V 
(vi 



Palstaves (Plate IV). 

No. 737. Unlooped Palstave. Splayed edge and ridges down the 
faces. 
Date: c. 1200-1000 B.C. From Wimbledon. 

No. 739. Looped Palstave of Intermediate Type (Smith, 1959). 
Vertical ridge on lower half. 

This palstave must have been cast at an angle of 45° relative 
to the plane of the mould. This can be seen from the fact that 
whereas the casting seam runs down the centre of the inner 
(looped) face, it is well over to one side of the outer face (Fig. 2.) 
Date: c. 1000-800 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 

The remaining palstaves all approximate to Smith's Late Type 
(Smith, 1959). Late palstaves are distinguished by their narrow 
blades and precise modelling (Grimes. 1951, 67). DaU: c. 900-600 

B.C. 



BRONZE IMPLEMENTS IN KINGSTON MUSEUM 7 

No. 9. From Thames, probably Kingston. 

Decoration of Clark's Class I — i.e. with ribs on the lower 
half only, the commonest type of ribbed palstave. This 
decoration is probably copied from that of the socketed axe 
(Grimes, 1951, 67). 

No. 738. From Thames, Kingston. 
Lower half plain. 

No. 6. From Thames, probably Kingston. Short vertical ridge 
down lower half. 

No. 736. From Thames, Kingston. Vertical ridge down lower half. 

No. 740. From Thames, Kingston. Short vertical ridge down 
lower half. 

Socketed Axes (Plate IV.) 

No. 10. Socketed Axe {Plain). Recalls a palstave in outhne. 
Socket almost square, completely filled with the original 
wooden haft, which now holds it together, as it is spht across 
within the loop. 
Date: c. 1000-450 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 

No. 743. Socketed Axe decorated with Three Knobs on each Face. 
Socket almost square, contains part of haft — very warped. 
Date: c. 1000-450 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 

No. 742. Socketed, Imitating Winged, Axe. Imitation wings upper 
end only. Socket almost square, large piece ripped out of front. 
Date: c. 700-450 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 

No. 744. Socketed, Imitating Winged, Axe. Socket round, 
contained small fragments of wood. 
Date: c. 700-450 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 

No. 3. Socketed Axe 

In 'mint' condition — probably never used. 
Date: c. 700-450 B.C. From Thames, probably Kingston. 

Miscellaneous (Plate II.) 

No. 24. Knife {or Razor?). Cf. Heathery Bum (British Museum, 
1953, Plate IV, No. 23). 
From Thames, Kingston. 

No. 745. Chape (Plate III, lower). Scabbard-shaped — ^for use with 
the leaf-shaped sword. See Evans, J., 1881, Fig. 364, from 
Isle worth. 

Note that there is a rivet hole (the rivet has dropped out but 
has been preserved) 13 cm. from the mouth. The sword could 
not have reached beyond that. There are remains of a wooden 
scabbard inside. 
Date: c. 1000-600 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 



BRONZE IMPLEMENTS IN KINGSTON MUSEUM 

No. 746. Chape (Plate III, lower). Similar to last. 

Rivet in position 14.5 cm. from mouth. The end of the 
wooden scabbard was found inside, shrivelled but preserving 
its rhomboid outline. 

Date: c. 1000-600 B.C. From Thames, Kingston. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

BIDEN, W. D. 1852. The History and Antiquities of the Ancient and Royal 
Town of Kingston-upon-Thames. 

BRISCOE, Lady, and FURNESS, A. 1955. 'A Hoard of Bronze Age Weapons 
from Eriswell near Mildenhall', Antiq. Journ., XXXV, 218-9. 

BRITISH MUSEUM, 1953. Later Prehistoric Antiquities of the British Isles. 

BREWIS, W. P. 1923. 'The Bronze Age Sword in Great Britain', Arch., 
LXXIII, 253-65. 

CLARK, J. G. D. 1940. 'A Late Bronze Age Find near Stutney Isle of Ely'. 
Antiq. Journ., XX, 52-71. 

COWEN, J. D. 1951. 'The Earliest Bronze Swords in Britain and their 
Origins on the Continent of Europe', P.P.S., XVII, 195-213. 

1952. 'Bronze Swords in Northern Europe', P.P.S., XVIII, 129-47. 

EVANS, E. E. 1930. 'The Sword-Bearers', Antiquity, IV, 157-72. 

1933. 'The Bronze Spearhead in Great Britain and Ireland', Arch., 

LXXXIII, 187-202. 

EVANS, J. 1881. The Ancient Bronze Implements . . . of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 

FOX, C. 1923. ArchcBology of the Cambridge Region. 

GIOT, P. R. 1960. Brittany. 

GREENWELL, W., and BREWIS, W. P. 1909. 'The . . . Bronze Spearhead 
in Great Britain and Ireland", Arch., LXI, 439-72. 

GRIMES, W. F. 1951. The Prehistory of Wales. 

HODGES, H. W. M. 1956. 'Studies in the Late Bronze Age in Ireland. 2. 
The Typology and Distribution of Bronze Implements', Ulster Journal 
of Archeeology. XIX, 29-56. 

■ 1957. 'Some Recent Finds of Bronze Implements', Ulster Journal of 

Archeeology, XX, 64-9. 

PEAKE, H. 1922. The Bronze Age and the Celtic World. 
SAVORY, H. N. 1948. 'The Sword-Bearers. A Reinterpretation', P.P.S., 
XIV, 155-76. 

SMITH, M. A. 1959. 'Some Somerset Hoards and their Place in the Bronze 
Age of Southern Britain', P.P.S., XXV, 144-87. 

SMITH, M. A., and BLIN-STOYLE, A. E. 1959. 'A Sample Analysis of British 

Middle and Late Bronze Age Materials using Optical Spectrometry', 

P.P.S.. XXV, 188-208. 
TRUMP, B. A. V. 1962. 'The Origin and Development of British Middle 

Bronze Age Rapiers', P.P.S., XXVIII, 80-102. 
WHEELER, R. E. M. 1927. 'Bronze Implements from the City of London', 

Antiq. Journ., VII, 294-8. 

WHIMSTER, D. C. 1931. Archeeology of Surrey . 



BRONZE IMPLEMENTS IN KINGSTON MUSEUM 



APPENDIX 

REPORT ON WOOD SAMPLES 
By Dr. C. R. Metcalfe, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

Small portions of wood attached to some of the implements 
described above were identified as follows : 

No. 4. Extreme tip of spearhead. Ash, Fraxinus excelsior. 

No. 10. Knee-haft, still in socketed axe. Not identified because 
sections cotdd not be obtained. 

No. 16. Head of spearshaft. Ash, Fraxinus excelsior. 

No. 743. Part of axe knee-haft. Oak of Quercus robur type. 

No. 744. Crumbs of axe knee-haft. Probably oak of Quercus robur 
type, but no broad rays seen, probably because the 
material was from a young shoot. 

No. 745. Crumbs of scabbard wood. Probably alder, Alnus 
glutinosa. 

No. 746. Wood of scabbard. Probably alder, Alnus glutinosa. 

No. 752. Head of spearshaft. Pyrus sp. probably pear {P. 
communis). The structure agrees with pear rather 
than apple. 



INTERIM REPORT ON THE EXCAVATION OF 
A LATE BRONZE AGE HOMESTEAD IN 
WESTON WOOD, ALBURY, SURREY* 

BY 

JOAN M. HARDING 

THE Late Bronze Age homestead in Weston Wood, Albury, 
Surrey,^ is still being investigated, so this is in the nature of an 
interim statement. The full report will be published later. The 
site is on the Albury Park Estate near Guildford, and is being dug by 
kind permission of the Dowager Duchess of Northumberland for the 
Surrey Archaeological Society, with a research grant from the 
Prehistoric Society. 

The homestead is on the main prehistoric trackway through 
Surrey (later known as the Pilgrims' Way) , which avoids the wealden 
clays and follows the North Downs from Kent through Guildford to 
Farnham and on to Salisbury Plain. At this point the track is 
divided, part being on the greensand hills from Shere through 
Weston Wood and St. Martha's Hill. Weston Wood is as easily 
accessible today, being on the A25 main Dorking/Guildford road, 
and just opposite the Silent Pool. Entrance is through a disused 
brick-yard where the road rises steeply to Newlands Comer on the 
chalk dowTis. The site is above a sand quarry. In the Geological 
Survey this area is described as 'sand with much scattered carstone.' 
It is a desirable place for a residence, being dry, on Lower Greensand, 
on a flattened area on the wooded hill slope, and sheltered from the 
prevailing west winds. There is a spring below. It rises on the 
Gault, from which, no doubt, clay was obtained for pot-making. 
To the north are the chalk downs for good flint, and a geologically 
recent coombe deposit in the valley provided broken patinated 
flint for some very crude tools. To the south is the TiUingboume 
River for fish. 

Weston Wood is being quarried away fast. The site is immediately 
above the sand pit. No trace could be seen from the surface. Simple 
flake tools exposed by the bulldozer were similar to those found on 
many of Surrey's greensand hills. But a hammer-stone suggested 
that further investigation might be rewarding — and then coarse 
gritted pottery was found. 

THE EXCAVATION 

The rescue excavation has been in progress now for three years, 
1961-63, and has barely managed to keep ahead of the bulldozer. 
Finds are limited to shadows in the sand, to flint tools, and to pottery 
which is friable and has lost the upper surface in this shghtly acid 

♦ Paper presented to the Prehistoric Society, 9 November 1963. 
X Nat. Grid Ref. TQ (51) 053485. 

10 



A LATE BRONZE AGE HOMESTEAD IN WESTON WOOD 



11 




12 A LATE BRONZE AGE HOMESTEAD IN WESTON WOOD 

soil. The pH averages 6-057 in the natural sand, and 6-225 in the 
brown occupation layer which is everywhere 18 inches below the 
forest surface. Dr. I. Cornwall suggests that the soil is not as acid 
as heathland because here it has probably always been forest. 
Prehminary analysis of some of the charcoal from the site shows 
hazel and oak, with several sloe seeds from the pit. It is at present 
a very mixed planted forest — oak, beech, sweet chestnut, fir and 
rhododendron, with bracken beneath. 

During 1961 investigation was in the bulldozed area. Subsequently 
trenches were extended into the forest, where the only disturbance 
of the occupation level had been by tree roots. Throughout, a 16- 
foot grid has been set out, and, after removal of the top foot of 
forest, the area has been scraped with trowels. A simple technique 
for taking plastic skins of features has been evolved. Experiments 
have also been made using the local Gault clay from the valley 
below to make and bake Late Bronze Age type pottery. 

The plan (Fig. 2) shows that there is possibly a circular house 
(E5/6)'= of 20 feet diameter, with central packed post hole, and 
containing also in a pit, a large pot which could be dated to the 
Late Bronze Age. Round this house were ranged two small 
cultivated plots (DE/3/4 and GH/5/6). All this was within the 
bulldozed area. To the south was an area of hearths (BC5/6/7) , and 
this was divided by a straight shallow trackway or ditch from a 
smaller circular structure containing a quern. Outside (D8) was a 
concentration of pottery and a copper ingot. A second ingot was 
well removed (F9) and not associated with pottery. Further into 
the wood and sUghtly uphill was a working floor levelled in the 
sand (A 11/12). This contained concentrations of pottery, heavy 
flint tools, and at the further end, a storage pit with a pot and grain. 

The pottery is, with the exception of about thirty pieces, of the 
Late Bronze Age. The site seems to have much in common with 
Plumpton Plain Site B,3 Minnis Bay* and Famham, Green Lane.'^ 
The radio-carbon date for the grain gives a date of 510 B.C. + 110.'' 
This date at the latter end of the Late Bronze Age fits well with a 
possible triangular loom weight, and some of the finer harder wares. 

The House. The plan of the circular structure (EF6) is incomplete 
because of the bulldozer, and the occupation layer had been 
preserved only under a tree stump. This had protected the central 
packed post hole, two pits and the bases of the outer ring of post 
holes to the south. These were 4 feet apart and joined by a shallow 
trench. There may have been a porch to the north. The pits were 
basin shaped, 3 feet across and 18 inches deep with three or four 
pieces of carstone at the bottom. One was empty, and the other 

2 This and subsequent reference numbers refer to the co-ordinates on the 
plan. 

3 Hawkes, C.F.C., P.P.S.. I (1935). 39-59. 

4 Worsfold, F. H.. P.P.S., IX (1943), 28-47. 

5 Preh. Farnh.. 183-202. 

6 Measurement done by Prof. H. Godwin of the Department of Botany, 
University of Cambridge. 



A LATE BRONZE AGE HOMESTEAD IN WESTON WOOD 13 

contained the large storage pot with unusual punched design. It was 
complete on one side only. The other pieces were in the central post 
hole. The bronze awl was found here, a tiny pottery 'egg cup' and 
two spindle whorls. There was no hearth in this house. 

The Plots. The furrows of the two small rectangular plots {DE/3/4 
and GH5/6) equidistant from the house to the east and north, 
showed as broad hues of disturbed sand in the sand (Plate V(a)). 
They were just over one foot apart, which compares with the 
Gwythian^ fields. Cultivated only once, each plot was essentially 
the same, about 23 feet by 28 feet. The furrows ended straight; 
there was no turning (Plate V(a)). One end was deep and square, the 
other end of the plot had shallow furrows. The profiles were 
V-shaped with a perpendicular side always on the same side. In 
some places they were 3 inches or 4 inches deep, and in others 8 
inches. Because these plots were at bulldozer level they cannot 
archaeologically be connected with the Late Bronze Age house. It is 
probable that they are not modem, made since bulldozing and 
ranged round the tree, because the head forester assures us that only 
one plot had been dug above the quarry in his time, and this had 
been larger and further east. There is, however, evidence connecting 
the furrows with the house. The North plot has a deliberately 
shortened side, and the inside furrow of the South plot is 2 feet 
shorter than the rest, thereby leaving a wider way between the plots 
and in a direct line from the house porch to the spring below. 
The implement used to make the furrow is unknown. Two adjoining 
furrows were plotted from above, and with the long sections and 
cross sections were submitted to Professor Steensberg of Copenhagen. 
He thought it likely that the furrows had been cut with a spade. 
A study of the plastic skin of the profiles does show the mark left 
by the back push of the spade. 

The Track cut straight through the site (Z5 to H9). It showed as a 
4 foot-wide brown ribbon in the natural sand. In section it was 
1 foot deep in the centre. Sometimes there were pieces of carstone 
on its edge and sometimes they had fallen in. The filling was brown 
occupation floor. Where there had been no occupation it was filled 
with light forest soil and was more difficult to follow. In the cooking 
area there were fires on its edge. 

The Quern (C8) was in a circular structure 12 feet in diameter with a 
central post hole and well packed outer post holes 4 feet apart 
(Plate V(b)). The rubber was in 1 position. It weighed 18 pounds. The 
quern was constructed of five pieces of carstone. There was a very 
small rubbing base with a fluted apron in front. On either side was 
an upright which served to guide the rubber and also to anchor a 
heavily grooved carstone beneath. The problem of stabilizing the 
quern in the sand had not even then been solved. The whole was 

7 Megaw, J. V. S., Thomas, A. C. and Wailes, B., Proc. West Cornwall Field 
Club, II, 5 (1961), 200-15. 



14 A LATE BRONZE AGE HOMESTEAD IN WESTON WOOD 

bedded in small carstone pieces with ineffectual small wedges all 
round. There seems no parallel for this ingenious device. 

The Working Floor. This rectangular floor (AlO-All) had been 
levelled in the hillside. It had four fires on one side, a pit at the 
farther end, and several pots in pieces. The flint tools here were 
heavy working tools. 

The Pit (A 12). The most interesting feature here was the pit. It was 
4 feet across and 18 inches deep. It showed up as a grey area in a 
podsol. Excavation was carried out with difficulty as the pit 
became waterlogged after every shower— an unusual feature on this 
greensand hill. It was found that this pit had been dug, possibly 
in error, in one of the few clay pockets. At the bottom of the pit 
was a storage pot on its side, with grain. Above were bases of two 
other pots. The entire contents of the pit were sifted through small 
strainers under water, and grain, a few waterlogged pieces of wood 
and some twisted fibre rope was recovered. The rope is made of a 
flax or hemp fibre. As nothing else was found in the pit it had only 
begun to be used for rubbish. 

THE FINDS 

The Grain. The grain has been studied bj^ Professor A. H. Bunting 
of the Department of Agricultural Botany, University of Reading. 
Several types were mixed in the pit. The final report is not yet to 
hand but an interim statement says: — 

From the pit filling and lining were recovered approximately 430 cc. of 
carbonised plant remains. This was largely carbonised cereal grains, 
together with charcoal fragments. 20 cc. of this material was examined by 
Dr. Hans Helbeck of the National Museum, Copenhagen. The cereal grains 
were approximately two-thirds barley {Hordeum species) and one-third 
wheat {Triticum species). The absence of spikelet parts and the poor 
preservation of these grains prevented a close identification of the wheat or 
L)arley species. The asymmetrical form of many of the barley grains showed 
it to be a six-rowed variety. Most, if not all, of this barley was the hulled 
type: very few of the grains may be <jf the naked form. The dimension of 
the wheat grains indicate that Triticum dicoccum (emmer) was most probably 
present. The cereals, therefore, are what could be expected from a site of 
this age. 

The Pottery. The pottery recovered from the site amounts to over 
3,000 sherds, of which very few are later than the Bronze Age, and 
from which it is hoped to make partial reconstructions of a dozen 
pots.* The general standard of potting is not high. Only a few of 
the pieces show signs of slip or burnishing. A large number of wasters 
have been found, some in a post hole in the house and some on the 
working floor. The pottery has for convenience been divided into 
two groups— the coarse heavy storage-pot ware, and other, finer 
wares ; but both types were intermixed on the site. 

•Thanks are especially due to Winifred Phillips for detailed analysis of the 
pottery. 



FURROWS OF CULTIVATED PcCTS 
















<J 






KEY 

5S CARSTONE 

^ BROWN AREAS 

% TRACES OF FIRE 



10 20 FT. 

I I 



•o * 



10 






Fig. 2.— Plan of Excavation at Weston Wood. 



[Fating p. H 



A LATE BRONZE AGE HOMESTEAD IN WESTON WOOD 15 

The storage-pot ware is of coarse pinkish clay with heavy crushed 
bumt-flint tempering. It is poorly fired and fairly thick throughout. 
Shapes include buckets of varying sizes with flattened rims and 
splayed bases. They are typical of the Famham, Green Lane, ware. 
The pot illustrated (Plate VI (b)) was outside the quern structure. 
The lower half only had survived. It had been deliberately filled with 
carstone. Like the Wrecclesham um^ it was found standing upright. 
The fiat centre of the base was missing, and from the appearance of 
the edges seems to have disappeared in antiquity. A similar smaller 
pot came from the working floor. Decoration on these storage pots 
is rare, but throughout the site are sherds punched with a stick. In 
the pot in the first house some of the holes perforated the pottery, 
as can be seen in other Surrey sites such as the Sunningdale Barrow.^ 
A similar stick-embossed decoration was on the large storage pot on 
the working floor, but none of these holes perforated the pottery; 
this is paralleled in an unpublished urn from Latch Farm in Dorset, 

The second group of pottery is thinner, harder ware, ranging in 
colour from red to brown, with some black vessels, some of which 
appear to be slightly burnished (Plate VI (a)). There is generally a 
higher standard of potting with finer crushed grit used in tempering. 
There is a greater variety of shape in this group from small bowls 
to shouldered jars, some with finger dimpUng on the shoulders. 
There is a variety of rims (simple, everted, rolled over, expanded) 
while the bases are stiU flat. JProfessor Hawkes^° regards everted 
rims, often sHghtly flattened, to be a recurring feature of transitional 
Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age sites in Sussex and adds that 
shouldered vessels from Newhaven and other sites are difficult to 
distinguish from the following Early Iron Age types. Here we find 
these types close to Late Bronze Age storage pots. The drinking 
bowl illustrated (Plate VI (a)) is burnished inside. Others similar 
come from Famham and Carshalton. There are carinated bowls as 
from St. Martha's" and Minnis Bay,'^ and shouldered jars, well-fired 
with finger impression decoration exactly on the shoulder, as from 
New Bam Down. ^3 Two clay spindle whorls were on the house floor. 

Metal. Two pieces of copper ingot were found widely scattered, and 
a bronze awl. The copper is of relatively high purity. It must have 
come from afar via the trade route. Similar pieces of ingot have been 
found at Banstead,^* but not associated with pottery. The broken 
awl was found in the top of the storage pot in the house. 
Examination by Mr. A. Stubbington of Famborough showed that 
there was some porosity. The evidence suggested that it had been 
hot-forged from a cast rod, and lightly cold- worked after the major 
forming operation to make a hardened, wear-resisting, tapering 

8 Preh. Farnh., 180-2. 

9Sy.A.C., XXXV (1924), 17-23. 
loSx.A.C. LXXX (1939), 269-92. 
"Sy.A.C. XLIII (1935), 114. 
»2 Worsfold, F. H., loc. cit. 

13 Curwen. E. C, Sx.A.C, LXXV (1934), 137-70. 
HSy.A.C. XLVII (1941), 95-8. 



16 A LATE BRONZE AGE HOMESTEAD IN WESTON WOOD 

point. It would seem that it had been made by an inexperienced 
person who did not stir the hot bronze with a green stick to remove 
the oxygen, and so the awl broke. 

It should perhaps be mentioned here that there is as yet no 
evidence for metal working on the site. Very thick pottery which 
had been subjected to great heat (over 800° C.) and might have been 
crucible, showed no sign of metal under X-ray, when tested by 
Dr. R. F. Tylecote. 

Flint. Other implements are of flint. These tools are in excellent 
condition and are unpatinated. It is essentially a flake industry of 
mesolithic tradition. So far only three microliths have been found. 
All flint had been imported onto the site, and everywhere is 
associated with occupation floors. Of 1,200 pieces of flint so far 
analysed, half was waste material; and of the rest two-fifths were 
used flakes and three-fifths unused flakes. Of the used flakes very 
few had secondary working. Two-thirds of the tools had cortex left 
on. A very few rough tools had been struck from broken patinated 
flint from the coombe deposit in the valley below. Few core tools 
have been found. They come mainly from the working floor, and 
consists of cleavers, and chisel with petit tranchet point. There was 
also a punch made from a natural round flint. It is unchipped, so 
presumably was used for embossing some soft material. Quite a 
number of tools seem to have been used by a left-handed person. 



CONCLUSION 

This site appears to have been occupied for a very short period, 
perhaps a year, at the latter end of the Late Bronze Age. The date 
of c. 510 B.C. accords well with transitional pottery, and the coarse 
storage wares and fine burnished bowls can be paralleled on Early 
Iron Age sites in Surrey. The association of copper ingots with a 
domestic site is rare in Surrey. 

As an occupation site it is small compared with the Sussex farm- 
steads of Plumpton Plaints and Itford Hill."' The excavation is 
therefore continuing some 100 feet to the South on the same contour. 
An occupation floor has been located at the same depth, 18 inches. 
It is a carstone floor 6 inches deep, packed with burnt flint, pot 
boilers, coarse pottery with Famham-type pinched-out bases, and 
waste flakes. Around are various shallow pits, filled with ashes and 
pottery sherds. This promising area is still being investigated, and 
will be reported in detail later. 

The finds are deposited in Guildford Museum, together with the 
plastic skins. 

Thanks are due to Surrey Archaeological Society for providing the 
tools, to the many volunteers who have helped to scrape away the 
sands of time, and to the scientists and other experts who are 

15 Hawkes, C. F. C. P.P.S., I (1935), 39-59. 

i6 Burstow, G. P., and HoUeymen, G. A., P.P.S.. XXIII (1957), 167-212. 



A LATE BRONZE AGE HOMESTEAD IN WESTON WOOD 17 

analysing the finds. Without their help there would have been no 
record of the first Late Bronze Age homestead to have been found 
in Surrey. 



APPENDIX 

PLASTIC SKIN 

This technique was demonstrated in Holland. Great difficulty 
was experienced in procuring the emulsion in England. The problem 
was put to Anthony Clark who aimed to find a satisfactory non-toxic 
emulsion, which would be readily available in a do-it-yourself shop, 
and which would be simple to use. He has succeeded. Polybond 
is the plastic emulsion. It is miscible with water, non-toxic, and 
fireproof. First a 50% solution is sprayed thickly with a Flit gun on 
to the prepared section. This is left to dry. This consolidates the 
sand face ready for the next operation — of painting the whole 
section with neat Polybond. When dry, this is painted again and 
immediately 18-inch strips of muslin are laid on and painted on. 
The milky plastic becomes transparent when dry and then can be 
peeled off. The face of the section is attached, in reverse, to the 
mushn, and the various colours and stratification preserved for 
further study. Details of the furrows and a section of the grain 
storage pit have been thus saved and are in Guildford Museum. 



THE NORTH DOWNS TRACKWAY IN SURREY 

A RE-APPRAISAL 
BY 

REV. H. W. R. LILLIE, sj., m.a.(oxon). 

SINCE the beginning of the century a great deal of interest has 
been shewn in the route taken by this important ancient track. 
Julia Cartwright^ and Hilaire Belloc^ (following a long 
tradition) conceived it to be part of a route for pilgrims travelling 
from Winchester to the shrine of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury. 
More recent authorities have cast a good deal of convincing doubt 
on this theory and in the past twenty-five years the focus of interest 
has concentrated on discovering the actual path taken by this 
undoubtedly prehistoric trackway. The late Dr. Edwin Hart 
pubhshed in the Sy.A.C, XLI a most careful survey of the route 
mostly in Surrey, and in more recent years Mr. I. D. Margary,^ the 
eminent authority on ancient roads in this country, has shewn the 
route to have consisted of actually two paraDel routes — a ridgeway 
along the summit and a terrace-way lower down the escarpment, 
both proceeding from the Kentish ports by the North Downs as far 
as the western end of the Hog's Back, and thence westward to the 
chalk plateau of Salisbury Plain, the central habitat of ancient man 
in this country. 

I feel some misgivings in adding my own conclusions to the 
conclusions of these distinguished authorities, but my study (on 
foot) of this ancient way during the past fifteen years will I hope 
justify my setting down a number of points which I fancy have been 
overlooked. 

The route in Surrey falls into six convenient sections. Proceeding 
west to east we have (1) the Hog's Back, stretching from Whiteways 
End to Guildford: (2) Guildford to Dorking (Box HiU); (3) Box HiU 
to Colley Hill, Reigate; (4) Merstham Down to Foster Dovra, 
Caterham ; (5) Caterham to Titsey, after which the routes enter the 
county of Kent. (6) The passage from Colley Hill, Reigate to 
Merstham Down, and the river as well as the valley crossings are 
complicated and deserve a section on their own. 

1 . The Hog's Back. 

One of the points insisted upon by Mr. Belloc, and I think 
supported by Mr. I. D. Margary, is that where the escarpment is 
precipitous, the Terrace-way merges into the Ridgeway, i.e. the 

1 The Pilgrims Way (1st. Ed.), 1893. 

2 The Old Road. 1904. 

3 Arch. J.. CIX (1952). 39-53. Brief accounts in his books: Roman Ways 
in the Weald, 1948, Roman Roads in Britain, 1955, 7, and in Sy.A.C, LII 
(1952), 29-31. 

18 



THE NORTH DOWNS TRACKWAY IN SURREY 19 

Terrace-way as a terrace-way disappears. The Hog's Back is an 
example in point. However, a careful examination of the terrain 
on the southern slope of this passage seems to reveal very distinct 
traces of a terrace-way accompanying the well-known Ridgeway 
above, and in its usual position near the foot of the escarpment. 
Admittedly it is not easy to be certain where its eastern limb rejoins 
the Ridgeway. At its western end it rejoined the Ridgeway at 
Whiteways End. The chalk stratum here narrows to a very small 
width, forming a bridge to the chalk area above Famham. It is 
possible the Ridgeway originally did not join the Seale-Runfold 
Road at Whiteways End, but continued directly westwards near 
Whiteways End House instead of descending to the floor of the 
valley as it does now. There appear to be remains of a western limb 
of the Terrace-way from Scale to Whiteways End House running 
along the 300 foot contour line, which would support this 
suggestion. 

The eastern portion seems to run east from the Guildford by-pass 
along the 400 foot contour line to rejoin the Ridgeway where it 
crosses the same contour; or possibly it may have followed the line 
of the houses in Guildown Avenue to debouch into the Ridgeway 
somewhere near the New Cemetery. It could possibly have run from 
the by-pass at a slightly lower level, midway between the 400 foot 
and 300 foot contour lines. 

While this terminus is doubtful, there can be no doubt of the 
existence of the Terrace-way between Scale and Puttenham where it 
keeps close to the 300 foot contour line, passing by Newbam Cottages 
and Stonyhill, gradually rising to the 400 foot contour line north of 
Puttenham Heath. Thence past Wancote and Monkshatch the way 
will be found in situ and hardly disturbed till it reaches the by-pass. 

2. Guildford {Pewley Down) to Dorking {Box Hill) 

In this section there seems Uttle new to add to what Dr. Edwin 
Hart and Mr. I. D. Margary have said. The latter points out the 
existence of a junction — a chalk linkway — between the Greensand 
Way, west of St. Martha's and the Terrace-way near the spot where 
it crosses the main road from Newlands Comer to Shere. There also 
appears to be a second junction road (not perhaps previously 
noticed) leading from the top of Pewley Down, past the Echo Chalk 
Pit, down to the ferry on the Greensand Way at St. Catherine's. 

3. Dorking {Box Hill) to Colley Hill 

In this section, both Ridgeway and Terrace- way continue their 
parallel course. The existence of the Terrace-way at the foot of the 
Buckland Hills, though it was marked in the Ordnance Survey 
Six-Inch map, was for a long time ignored as an error. This, however, 
is not so. It runs quite clearly into the main London-Reigate road 
at the foot of Reigate Hill, crosses it, and proceeds up the hill almost 
parallel with the main road, till it reaches its entrance into Gatton 
Park some 200 yards east of the suspension bridge at the top of the 
hill. (Fig. 1.) 



20 



THE NORTH DOWNS TRACKWAY IN SURREY 



4. Merstham Down to Foster Down, Caterham. (Fig. 3.) 

Dr. Hart (and perhaps Mr. Margary)'* consider that there is no 
terrace-way in this area. I submit that there is, and a verj^ distinct 
one. 

A large oval-shaped chalk digging, known as Greystone Quarry, 
opens this passage on the west. Dr. Hart discovered a small 
remnant of the ancient Terrace-way coming from the direction of 
Merstham and running up to the western lip of the quarr}-, where it 
is broken away by the chalk workings. Dr. Hart figured this piece 
of road as pointing north-east indicating that it had originally been 
aligned to a path which leads from the north-east side of the quarry 
up to the summit of Merstham Down near Tolworth Farm to join 
the Ridgeway which otherwise seemed to terminate its westward 
passage at that point. 




Fig. 1. — The Ridgeway and Tekrace-way on Reigate Hill. 



However, a careful examination of this remnant of road shows 
that it does not point north-east at all, but directly east across the 
quarry where it will be found to meet a terrace-way on its own 
contour level. The quarry workings have broken away the con- 
necting piece of road, but the eastward continuation of the track is 
there for all to see. Moreover there are no signs at all of the north-east 
passage which Dr. Hart assumes to have led to the Ridgeway near 
Tolworth Farm. 

Following this terrace-way, we find it leading us eastwards along 
a well marked passage which after about three-quarters of a mile 
comes to an open field, then to a gate on the road leading from 
Rockshaw to Hilltop Farm. The track crosses the road and goes 
through private grounds along the 500 foot contour line. It 



4 Cf. Arch. J.. CIX (1952), 39-53, and Sy.A.C. LII (1952), 29-31. 
first he allows it. In the second he seems not to accept it. 



In the 



THE NORTH DOWNS TRACKWAY IN SURREY 21 

continues thus through the grounds of Hillside and Quarry Hill 
where it meets the road leading from Bletchingley up to Arthur's 
Seat. It continues, still adhering to the 500 foot contour line, to join 
a road passing between The Hermitage and New Hextalls. Here at 
the cross roads the track continues along a made road just south of 
Haseldine, on past and just north of the Roughets, after which it 
reaches the 600 foot contour hne when it proceeds round the bottom 
of the steep combe just south-west of Gravelly Hill up to its eastern 
shoulder, where it crosses a patch of scrub under Foster Down, 
emerging thence to cross a pasture field along its north side. Then 
again it breaks into a short length of scrub, passing by the mouth of 
a disused quarry by Freer Mink Farm to join presumably its further 
eastward continuation across the Caterham-Godstone main road. 
For some hundred yards west of this main road the track has been 
lost in the medley of ancient quarries and modem rubbish dumps. 

This passage of the Terrace-way has obviously been for the most 
part long disused in its western arm. Also it is interesting to note 
how it here appears to descend to the floor of the valley. In fact it 
does so, but the floor is very high — 500 or 600 feet. There is an 
obvious reason for this in the very steep slopes of White Hill and 
Quarry Hanger which will not permit of a pathway along their 
flanks. 

There seems little further to say about this area as regards the 
Ridgeway (except at its eastern and western extremities which I 
propose to deal with in a separate section). Its path is well known 
and has been excellently described by Dr. Hart in his most useful 
monograph to which I have already referred {Sy.A.C, XLI). 

5. Caterham {Foster Down) to Titsey. (Fig. 2). 

In this section as regards the path of both the Ridgeway and the 
Terrace-way I think there can be no controversy eastward of 
Tandridge Hill. Both proceed in well marked formation: the 
Ridgeway along the line of the summit main road, and the Terrace- 
way past the foot of the Oxted lime pits, thence across tilled fields 
through Titsey Park to meet the tarred road outside Titsey Church. 

But the section west of Tandridge Hill has I think been wrongly 
diagnosed. Let us take the Ridgeway first. It has been assumed 
that its westward passage from Tandridge Hill follows a steep 
descending lane called Gangers HiU to a point where it joins the 
Terrace-way above Fhnthall Farm, whence both proceed together 
down past the farm and round the top of a steep combe to the South 
Lodge of Marden Park, and then on past or through the sawmiUs at 
Dial Wood to the crossing of the Caterham-Godstone road. I think 
this is an error. The Ridgeway, instead of descending Gangers Hill, 
ought, if it is true to itself, to continue straight on. And indeed it 
quite obviously does. In quite characteristic fashion it continues 
along the summit by a very well marked broad avenue to emerge on 
a downward slope leading out a few yards north of South Lodge, 
Marden Park. It clearly does not even here desert its summit ways. 
In a small shaw on the opposite western side of this little valley will 



22 



THE NORTH DOWNS TRACKWAY IN SURREY 



be found clear traces of an old east-west summit track which 
obviously passed over the summit of this hill (Winders Hill) down 
into the valley through which runs the Caterham-Godstone road. 

As regards the Terrace-way, I have always been suspicious of the 
path authorities have given it between Laundry Cottage and the 
Quarry Farm Sawmills near Dialwood. The passage through 
Hanging Wood is a very steep and wet climb, and it seems to be 
more of the nature of a connecting link between ridgeway and 
terrace-way than a characteristic terrace-way. Again, why should 




Fig. 2. — The Passage from South Lodge, Marden Park, to 
Laundry Cottage. 



it ascend from Flint Hall Farm to the South Lodge of Marden Park 
when there is an obviously characteristic terrace-way passage 
below it as there is below Hanging Wood too? 

I would mark the true path of the Terrace-way as follows: — 
Proceeding eastwards from the Sawmills, follow the road towards 
South Lodge, Marden Park, for a quarter of a mile where there is a 
fork. Take the right-hand prong, past the electric dynamo and along 
a well marked passage passing the mouth of two disused pits. (This 
road passes below the steep bluff on which South Lodge stands.) 
Then the passage dovetails easily into Flower Lane (the rough road 
leading from South Lodge to Flinthall Farm). It crosses the lane 
by a small path just near another old chalk pit and just before the 
junction of Flower Lane with Gangers Hill Road. 

This small crossing — about 10 yards long — is clearly the remains 
of an ancient track leading eastwards, but now severed by the 
Gangers Hill Road. It continues eastwards into the field north of 
Flinthall Farm where the marks of the track are plain. They lead 
round the south side of a bluff, across an ancient path (running north 
to south) and into the lower part of Hanging Wood — where, though 
macerated b}^ old disused quarries, the trackway will be seen to lead 



THE NORTH DOWNS TRACKWAY IN SURREY 



23 



on eastwards till it emerges on the road passing Laundry Farm just 
south of the spot where the hitherto accepted Hanging Wood 
passage emerges. 

This is not only a much more characteristic route for the Terrace- 
way, but there are actually sufficient remains of it to confirm its 
correctness. In Sy.A.C, VI, there is a short article bj^ Sir Gilbert 
Scott who lived nearby some eighty years ago and who suggests from 
his own experience the existence of this route. The article well 
repays study. 




Fig. 3.— The Passage from Colley Hill to Merstham Down. 

6. (i) The passage from Colley Hill to Merstham Down. (Fig. 3.) 

It has always been accepted that just east of the suspension 
bridge at the top of Reigate Hill the Ridgeway and Terrace-way meet 
to pursue a joint passage through Gatton Park, thence through the 
grounds of Merstham House and Merstham Rectory, past the Church, 
over the cemetery and railway cuttings to the point at the western 
lip of Greystone Quarry already mentioned (Section 4). 

But, if we take our stand on Merstham Down and look westwards, 
we have a terrace-way (now accepted, I hope, as a link with the road 
broken by Greystone Quarry) and also a ridgeway which seems to 
have come to a full stop near Tolworth Farm. From this point 
westwards it was that Dr. Hart wanted a link proceeding downhill 
from the Ridgeway to join the Terrace- way at Greystone Quarry. 
But in fact there are clear traces that the Ridgeway actually 
proceeded straight on its westward path along the summit to cross 
the road called Shepherd's Way, proceeding past the reservoir and 
the disused fort, down the slope and across the floor of the valley to 
remount again somewhere near Harps Oak Farm. 

So here we have a ridgeway hitherto unnoticed' which appears to 

5 The late Dr. Grundy in his article on Hants and Wilts trackways, in 
Arch. J.. LXXV (1918), 166, does actually accept it. 



24 THE NORTH DOWNS TRACKWAY IN SURREY 

proceed not on the Gatton Park Track, but over the chalk ridge and 
parallel to the way through Gatton Park. So much cultivation has 
obscured the ground that this ridgeway is difficult to delineate. It 
apparentl}' climbed from Harps Oak on to the ridge of Ashstead Hill. 
It crossed the road called Markedge Lane somewhere near Upper 
Gatton Park's eastern lodge, proceeding thence along the summit by 
Dell Wood, Park Shaw, Gatton Field Shaw, and then across the 
modem main road from London to Reigate to link up with the 
Ridgeway on Colley Hill somewhere near the dismantled fort. 
Accuracy here is difficult, because of ground modifications imposed 
by modem changes, but there are distinct traces that such a way 
must have existed near Upper Gatton Park Lodge and near Gatton 
Field Shaw. This of course does away with the joint nature of the 
Gatton Park passage, and renders the accepted ridgeway past and 
over the suspension bridge from the dismantled fort on Colley Hill 
to the western entrance of Gatton Park just a connecting hnk 
between it and the Terrace-way which here climbs the shoulder of 
Reigate Hill to proceed through the Park, as noted in Section 3. 

There are some who hold that the passage through Gatton Park 
is not even the original Terrace-way, They consider that this used 
to run parallel to the Ridgeway as outlined above — more or less in 
its usual position — to pass over the Old London Road at the disused 
quarry just west of Merstham (i.e. not south of the Church but 
north of it) to join the road leading to the hp of Greystone quarry. 
I feel some doubt about this. Certainly the way through Gatton 
Park is extremely wet going in bad weather, and it seems to get 
involved in something approaching gault near Merstham Rectory; 
but there do seem to be definite signs of some sort of terrace-way 
just below Gatton Field Shaw. However, tradition is insistent that 
the way through Gatton Park is very ancient. Perhaps it could be 
explained as a later date short cut across the valley from Colley Hill 
to Merstham Down. 

(ii) The River and Valley crossings 

These comprise the crossings of the Wey at Guildford and the 
Mole at Boxhill; also the valley crossing at Caterham. 

The River Crossings: — 

[a) As regards the passage across the Wey at Guildford there 
does not seem much new to say. I follow the accepted conclusions 
that the trackways both westward and eastward of the ford merged 
on the west at Mount Street and on the east at Pewley Down: 
and the spot where the old ford was situated was not very far from 
where Guildford's main bridge now stands. 

{b) As regards the crossing of the Mole at Dorking there are a 
number of points to consider. First of all the Mole is a peculiar 
river. In dry seasons it is inclined to diminish its flow to such an 
extent that it is easy to cross it in many places. Even when the 



THE NORTH DOWNS TRACKWAY IN SURREY 



25 




26 THE NORTH DOWNS TRACKWAY IN SURREY 

flow of water is normal there seem to be three or four points in its 
passage from Burford Bridge to Dorking where a shallow crossing 
can be found without much difficulty, e.g. (1) Pixham Firs near the 
junction between the Mole and the Pipp brook: (2) at the foot of the 
path leading down from the shoulder of Box Hill and using the 
small island : (3) at the Stepping Stones. (4) Presumably there must 
also have been a crossing where Burford Bridge now stands. (Fig. 4.) 

Dr. Hart selected the crossing at Pixham Firs as the spot most 
convenient to join up the east and west limb of the Terrace-way. 
I have never liked it for the following reasons. (1) Approaching 
from the east Dr. Hart presumed that the track proceeded from the 
point in the field where ploughing has broken it off by a gradual 
downward descent to the ford at Pixham. This involves a descent 
through what in rainy weather is very wet ground. Furthermore, it 
seems to have escaped him that at the point where the way seems to 
have been ploughed away, the 300 foot contour line takes quite a 
severe northward curve: and it is much easier to link it up with the 
obvious remains of a terrace- way just adjacent to Boxhurst House 
and on the 300 foot contour line than with one lower down which 
may never have existed. This terrace-way (if it be the true one) 
leads directly to the shoulder of Box Hill, there to join the Ridge way 
in its descent to the very sensible island ford at the foot. 

One of the reasons why Dr. Hart accepted Pixham as the Terrace- 
way ford was because he says there is a plough bank leading thence 
westwards to the spot on the main London-Dorking road where it 
crosses to meet the way coming down by the footbridge over the 
railway from the chalk hump on the western side of the valley. 

I have seen no sign of the plough bank he mentions. Moreover, 
both on the map and on foot, the obvious eastern direction the way 
is taking from the railway footbridge is not Pixham at all, but 
along the private road leading from the junction of Pixham Lane 
and the main Dorking-London road straight in the direction of the 
island crossing at the shoulder-foot below Box Hill. 

As regards the Ridgeway, there can be little doubt that it conies 
from the east to the top of Box Hill and then descends very precip- 
itously — joined on its descent by the Terrace-way — to the ford 
below. The ford used at the present day is one a little to the north 
at the Stepping Stones, which corresponds neatly with a ridgeway 
track coming eastwards from the north end of the elevation upon 
which Denbies House used to stand, at its southern end. It is to be 
noticed that no evidence of this track can be found in early maps 
such as Rocque's (1754). Probably it existed, but this cartographer 
gives as the path to the ford from the west one that still is in 
existence, parallel but shghtly south of this passage, leading to the 
river by Bradley Farm. This undoubtedly came out near the lower 
ford, the island ford mentioned above. 

The Ridgeway cUmbing the western face of Box Hill is very 
precipitous, and I think so steep for baggage animals that even 
prehistoric man would have preferred to climb by the very sensible 
path leading from the northern slope of Box Hill from Burford 



THE NORTH DOWNS TRACKWAY IN SURREY 27 

Bridge. There is a convenient trackway still remaining which 
connects the Burford Bridge Crossing with the ridge at Denbies, 
lying just north of the other two ridgeway tracks I have mentioned. 

The Valley Crossings 

I have already dealt with the difficult passage from Colley 
Hill to Merstham Down. The conclusions of Dr. Hart regarding the 
brief crossings at Cole Kitchen Combe, near Shere, and that at 
Pebblecombe I accept. There remains the valle}' crossing over the 
Caterham-Godstone road from Foster Down to Winders Hill. 

If the conclusions I have drawn in Sections 4 and 5 be accepted, 
we have here both on east and west sides of the main road two 
strands of Ridgeway and Terrace-way to unite with two correspond- 
ing strands on the opposite sides of the valley. 

To take the Terrace-way first, Dr. Hart presumed there was only 
one track which he figured as coming on the east from South Lodge, 
Marden Park, to the sawmills; then after taking a turn to the north, 
crossing westwards the area between the Old Roman Road and the 
new road by a gate on the floor of the valley which he considers 
linked up with the track coming eastwards round the brow of the 
hill at Foster Down, through the present rubbish heaps and down to 
the Caterham-Godstone main road. 

I think Dr. Hart was wrong here. Even allowing for his confusing 
the two distinct tracks of ridge and terrace, his path through Dial 
Wood is quite out of character with the habits of the way, which 
never turns a sharp comer unless the hill itself does so. The obvious 
line for the terrace way is to cross Dial Wood at the sawmills and 
proceed by the remains of a road directly in its line, now hidden by 
thick scrub, but marked by Dr. Hart himself on his own Ordnance 
Survey Six-Inch map (to be seen at Castle Arch, Guildford) as having 
been closed when the new Caterham-Godstone road was made. 
This road crosses from the Old Roman Road by a large and 
presumably prehistoric tumulus and comes out just on the alignment 
where the Terrace-way (already described in Section 4) must have 
come to meet it. 

Having disentangled the Terrace-way from its spurious ridgeway 
characteristics, it is fairly simple to see how the Ridgeway ran. 
From the east, crossing over Winders Hill (as described in Section 
5), there are still traces of it descending to the floor of the valley, 
passing Ockley Wood on its southern side. Here it crossed the 
present main road (possibly on the site where a gate now stands) , 
proceeding by the spot marked as a 'bus stop straight up the field 
on the west, taking the southern slope of the hill coming to meet 
it, passing \\ith a southerly course by a disused quarry over the 
modem road by Tupwood and by a small track 20 yards long, traces 
of which still remain, and joining the bridle road which leads round 
the brow of Foster Down. 

I am inchned to think that tlie bridlepath just alluded to is not 
the original track. Sir Gilbert Scott in his sensible article already 
referred to says that local tradition holds that the road before The 



28 THE NORTH DOWNS TRACKWAY IN SURREY 

Moyle House was built, passed straight westwards over the summit 
where the 700 foot contour holds two very serviceable niches on 
both its eastern and western side making this passage easy and 
shorter as well as likely. Thence it emerged by a path still in use 
southward to join the road leading either over or round Gravelly 
Hill, on its westward passage through the prehistoric camp at 
Cardinal's Cap. 



THE ATWOOD IRON AGE AND ROMANO- 
BRITISH SITE, SANDERSTEAD, 1960 

BY 

R. I. LITTLE 

EARLY in 1960 construction work commenced on the site of the 
Atwood Primary School, Limpsfield Road, Sanderstead.^ On 
6 March 1960, the writer, accompanied by Mr. M. E. Farley 
and Mr. K. D. Hore, discovered extensive traces of Iron Age and 
Romano-British occupation in the foundation and drainage trenches. 
Permission was given by the County Architect, Mr. J. Harrison, 
A.R.I.B.A., to the Sanderstead Archaeological Group to investigate 
the area thoroughly as the building operations progressed. 

It was soon realised that whilst the Iron C and Romano-British 
occupation covered the larger section of the areas investigated, the 
Iron A and B site was mainly concentrated near the line of the 
prehistoric ridgeway running on the line of the present Limpsfield 
Road at this site. This concentration was in the form of numerous 
post holes and rubbish pits, all of which were located in drainage and 
electricity supply trenches cut through the school drive.- Time did 
not permit the examination and clearance of all of these pits. 
Twelve pits were recorded in this immediate area, of which only 
eight were fully examined. Their position clearly indicates the 
presence of other such pits on either side of the drive. 

The rest of the site was also recorded by observations made over 
approximately one year, and was investigated with the co-operation 
of the contractors, Messrs. Lawdons Ltd. The Sanderstead 
Archaeological Group only opened trenches where it was deemed 
necessary, relying otherwise on recording any pits, post holes and 
ditches re\'ealed in the course of the numerous excavations essential 
to the building construction work. An account of these discoveries 
is given in more detail below. 

No previous record exists of any other archaeological material 
having been found here. The unearthing of a solitary urn cremation 
of the first century a.d. in 1943 at Wentworth Way, 400 yards 
south of the site, 3 is the nearest previous discovery, whilst the 
Romano-British settlement in Kings Wood is situated only half a 
mile to the east.-* A short stretch of Roman road from this latter 
site intersects the prehistoric ridgeway mentioned above. 
Summary 

We have here a small but estabUshed community lasting from the 
earliest phase of the Iron Age until the early Romano-British period 

I Nat. Grid Ref. TQ (51) 343605. 
^ Sy.A.C, LVIII (1961), 112. 

3 Sy.A.C, XLIX (1946), 112. 

4 Sy.A.C, LVIII (1961), 35-46. 

29 



30 THE ATWOOD IRON AGE AND ROMANO-BRITISH SITE 

(second century a.d.). The surrounding finds clearly indicated that 
such a site as this settlement should be in the vicinity. 

The structural finds consisted of pits, hut sites and ditches which 
were dated by means of the pottery and querns contained in their 

THE STRUCTURAL FINDS (Fig. 1.) 

With the exception of the group of Iron Age pits situated in the 
school drive, all of the structural finds were brought to fight within 
the boundaries of the school. This is enclosed by a wire-mesh fence 
dehmiting an area of approximately one acre. For convenience in 
recording, this area was spHt into three sections (see Plan, Fig, 1.) : 
Area I is the section of the site cleared during the laying dov\Ti of 
an asphalt playground, Area II is the section cleared and trenched 
prior to the erection of three prefabricated classrooms and a teachers' 
rest-room. Area III is where the main school buildings M^ere erected 
some twelve months later. 

THE OCCUPATION IN THE EARLIER PHASES OF THE IRON AGE 
(IRON A AND SECOND b) 

On the Line of the Drive 

Upon the initial discovery of the site, two parallel trenches for 
supplying water and electricity to the new school were found open 
along the line of the school drive. These were completed and refilled 
soon afterwards, allowing only time for eight of the twelve pits 
recorded to be examined fully. 

Pits 1, 2, 3 and 7 were not cleared. The pits which were excavated 
were small (about 2 feet in diameter and from 18 to 24 inches deep) 
and, except in the case of No. 11, were flat-bottomed and contained 
a dark fill, with in every case some pottery. Pit No. 11 was saucer- 
shaped and contained a lighter fill. The pottery from Pits 5, 6, 10, 
11, 12 is described below (Fig. 2). Fragments of saddle querns 
were found in Pits 5 and 10 (see below. Page 38). 

Area I 

Pit 13. A small flat-bottomed pit was revealed by bulldozing 
in the north comer of the area cleared for the school playground. 
No contents. 

Area III 

Pit 14. Disclosed in the side of a partially constructed cess-pit 
as a shallow horizon of dark soil 8 feet in diameter by 2 feet in depth. 
This yielded two fragments of Iron Age pottery and part of a loom 
weight of indeterminate form. 

Pit 15. Disclosed in another cess-pit. 3 feet by 3 feet with a 
concave base. It contained a large quantity of grey sticky clay with 
21 struck flakes of flint, 4 'pot-boilers' and 4 sherds of crude pottery. 
Iron oxide from the clay subsoil had filtered through into the pit 
and congealed on the potsherds. These four sherds are described 
below (Page 37). 



THE ATWOOD IRON AGE AND ROMANO-BRITISH SITE 31 




• 33 AREA II 



,, pitCH I 
'35 





36 • . 


37 • 




AREA 


HI i 






. 38 








o 


15 


' DITCH 2 J 



HUT 2 

c? • 

O 

HUT I 



DOTTED AREA UNDER CONSTRUCTION U960) 



PITS 
O IRON ASEiEARLY 
O IRON AGEtLATE 
• ROMANO-BRmSH 




p,G 1 _plan of Atwood Early Iron Age and Romano-British Site. 



32 



THE ATWOOD IRON AGE AND ROMANO-BRITISH SITE 



Pit 16. This was the largest Iron Age pit found on the site. It 
measured 7 feet in diameter by 4 feet in depth. The fill differed 
little from the natural subsoil, and the pit was only disco\'ered 
whilst clearing a small Iron C rubbish pit found to be inserted into 
the side of this earlier pit. The fill consisted of minute flecks of 
charcoal, the jaw and other bones of an ox, 5 a few lumps of weathered 
chalk, a piece of burnt sandstone, iron slag, 'pot-boilers' and 64 
sherds of Iron Age pottery (see below Page 37 and Fig. 2, 6). 




Fig. 2. — Iron Age Pottery from the Atwood Site. [\) 

the occupation in the latest phase of the iron age 
(iron c) 

Four pits belonging to this phase were unearthed during the 
constructors' extensive bulldozing and trenching. 

Pit 17. Road levelling revealed a small elongated pit which had 
been inserted into the upper level of Pit 16. This had a very dark 
filling containing quantities of charcoal and 14 fragments of Iron C 
pottery, amongst which was a piece of bead-rim jar. Also in the fill 
was a piece of burnt conglomerate, flints, and clay, all showing signs 
of having been subjected to heat. 

Pits 18 and 19. These were two small pits with dark filling. 
From the first pit were recovered 18 sherds of a bead-rim vessel of a 
corky texture, eight pieces of daub and a burnt flint. The second pit 
yielded only two sherds of Iron C potter^'. 

Pit 20. This was revealed in a drainage trench and measured 
5 feet in diameter by 4 feet in depth. Only two sherds of pottery 
were recovered from the fill, but in the spoil from the drainage 
trench were found an upper and lower quern stone of conglomerate, 
(See Page 38). 



THE ROMANO-BRITISH OCCUPATION 

Hut Sites 

Two hut sites were recorded within a few yards of each other in 
Area I. Only one of these {Hut 1) was excavated, whilst the other 
was destroyed before it was examined fully. 

5 Identified by the excavator. 



THE ATWOOD IRON AGE AND ROMANO-BRITISH SITE 33 

Hut 1. The laj'ing of the asphalt playground involved the 
removal of 9 inches of topsoil. In the area thus revealed was noted a 
circular patch of dark soil which contrasted with the yellow cla}- 
which is the natural subsoil. This area measured 10 feet in diameter 
by 1 foot in depth. The dark filling was entirely removed but no 
post holes were discovered. This fill consisted of a rich mixture of 
charcoal, bones, pottery and the fragmentary remains of two quern 
stones. 

The pottery, a selection of which is described below (Pp. 37-8, 
Fig. 3) dated from a.d. 60-150, but the main bulk dated from the 
last quarter of the first century a.d. Over 400 sherds of this date 
were recorded, including Samian ware, Castor ware and an over- 
whelming predominance of coarse ware of local manufacture. Of 
the last category the following types were found: bead-rim jars, 
storage jars, ollae, cordoned vases, 'pie-dishes,' feeding bottles,^ 
imitation Samian ware. The ware was generally hard and sometimes 
gritty and in one case the surface was polished. Only six positive 
sherds were recorded of the second century within the fill. These 
included rim-less bowls, fine combed ware and a sherd of late 
second century reeded-rim vessel. Three pieces of a mortarium of 
first century date were also found. 

Other finds from the hut filling were rather sparse and, apart from 
the quern fragments, consisted only of four square-sectioned iron 
nails, three struck flakes and a piece of iron slag.^ The quern 
fragments are described below (Page 38).^ 

Hut 2. Ten feet north of Hut 1 was the site of a small hut or 
building of different construction from Hut 1. This was the area of 
the initial discovery of the settlement. The mechanical removal of 
the turf had exposed a compact area of rocks, all foreign to the 
locahty. These had been deposited three feet away from a chalk 
floor. This deposit consisted of pieces of ironstone, sandstone and 
decayed blocks of Greensand. Forming a foundation to this 
collection was half of a Niedermendig lava quern stone. By this, and 
resting upside down, was the base of a first century storage jar. 
Part of an ironstone quern showing signs of extensive use was found 
and also the shattered remains of a second storage jar. 

The chalk floor, which measured 6 feet by 9 feet and was roughly 
oval, was buried only 9 inches from the surface of the field in which 
the site lay. It was cleaned and photographed and found to consist 
of a two-inch thick horizon of puddled chalk. A small hearth was 
located at its western end. There were no post holes through this 
floor. Scattered on its surface, and embedded in the chalk matrix, 
were 78 sherds from a single second century cavetto-rimmed oUa 
of a grey, cross-hatched ware. Pottery^ fragments of 12 other vessels 
were also found. The structure which these remains marked may 
have been a rectangular timber building. 

(>Sy.A.C., LVIII (1961), 43. 

7 Identified by the excavator. 

8 Numerous pieces of ironstone, which is not a local material, were found 
throughout the site. 



34 THE ATWOOD IRON AGE AND ROMANO-BRITISH SITE 





Fig. 3. — Romano-British Pottery from the Atwood Site, (i) 

Ditches 

Over 40 ancient intrusions were revealed in the subsoil over the 
site by cable, drainage and foundation trenches. Only in two 
instances was it possible to define the sections of the small ditches 
or gulleys which are so characteristic of sites of this type and period. 
Both of these were of a similar nature ; relatively small and containing 
a dark fill. 

Ditch 1. Only 12 feet of this ditch were traced and its sections 
examined. It measured 4 feet across by 2 feet 6 inches in depth. 



THE ATWOOD IRON AGE AND ROMANO-BRITISH SITE 35 

Found in the fill were two fragments of early first century p)ottery, 
an iron nail and a piece of ferruginous sandstone. 

Ditch 2. In the foundation trenches of the main school buildings 
a series of ditch sections were noted. These ran for over 70 feet in an 
east-west direction as opposed to the north-south run of Ditch 1. 
Unfortunately the rate of building progress prevented a more 
comprehensive examination being made. No pottery was therefore 
recovered. This ditch may connect with Ditch 1, though it is 
slightly wider, its measurements being 7 feet by 2 feet 6 inches. 

Rubbish Pits and similar structures 
Area J 

Pit 21. An elongated pit measuring 5 feet by only 1 foot in 
depth, and containing an intense black fill comprised of decayed 
vegetable matter and the remains of 8 pots of early first centur^^ 
date: a bead-rim jar, three storage jars and a jar, possibly with 
pedestal base, of black-coated pottery, decorated with cordons and 
cross-hatching. 

Pit 22. Ten feet south-east of Hut 2 the contractors cut through 
a large dark-filled pit. They salvaged a quantity of pottery, 
including, from their description, a large part of a bead-rim jar and a 
'piece of a granite disc' This material was imfortunately removed 
from the site and subsequently mislaid. From the sherds gleaned 
from the spoil heap it is certain that this large pit or small hut dated 
from the middle of the first century. 

Area II 

Pit 27. In a drainage trench was discovered a small pit 17 
inches deep. This contained a large quantity of charcoal and 
calcined bone material. It was possible to ascertain that this 
calcined bone was human and apparently that of a child. ^ This 
insertion is similar to Burial I in Kings Wood.'° No pottery was 
recovered. 

Pits 28, 30 and 35. These were small pits which yielded no 
pottery or other finds. 

Pit 29. A small pit with a clay filling barely distinguishable 
from the natural clay and containing the shattered remains of a 
badly eroded Samian patera of form 18. 

Pit 31. A wide shallow pit measuring 12 feet across by only 1 
foot in depth. This appears to have been an occupation level rather 
than an actual pit. Pottery of the middle of the first century was 
found, including a large sherd of an enormous storage jar of hard 
buff paste with walls 1^ inches thick. 

Pit 32. Only the barest traces of this pit remained due to the 
insertion of a man-hole. 

9 Identified by the excavator. 
loSy.A.C. LVIII (1961), 39. 



36 THE ATWOOD IRON AGE AND ROMANO-BRITISH SITE 

Pit 33. A pit of unusual form. One side was nearly vertical 
and the other sloped at 45 degrees, the whole being reminiscent of a 
ditch section. Further excavation on the line however failed to 
reveal any continuation. Pottery was recovered of the mid-first 
century. 

Pit 34. In the side of a newly dug cess-pit was a small pit, 
chalk-filled. In the bottom was found a number of sheep bones, 
carefully deposited. No pottery was recovered, and this pit was 
neither a rubbish pit or a post hole, but possibly a ritual deposit. 

Pit 35. Another chalk-filled pit exposed in the same cess-pit. 
Unexcavated. 

Area III 

Pit 36. Exposed in the sides of a foundation trench was a clay- 
filled pit measuring 5 feet across by 2 feet deep. The fill consisted of 
a light grey clay with flints, charcoal and mid-first century pottery. 

Pits 37 and 38. These were both unexcavated, but were revealed 
by building trenches. In the exposed face of the former were sherds 
of black cordoned pottery. 

Pit 39. A small post hole, isolated, containing a few sherds of 
first century pottery. 

CONCLUSIONS 

It is evident that the Atwood site is that of a fairly small but 
long-established community of typical British pattern. The pottery 
types recovered from the modem construction work and minor 
excavation give an almost complete chronology from the Late 
Bronze Age (600 B.C.) to the beginning of the second century a.d. 
Why then did our early ancestors inhabit this particular area for 
700 years? 

The answer to this may possibly lie in the physical location of the 
site. It has been accepted that the present Limpsfield Road from 
Sanderstead Church to Botley Hill is on the line of an Iron Age 
ridgeway. When this site was first inhabited this ridgeway may 
have already been several centuries old. The site is situated on the 
edge of a reasonably flat plateau of clay with flints, which, while 
difficult to farm with primitive equipment, is more fertile than the 
surrounding chalklands, gravels and sand. As commerce slowly 
developed the inhabitants must have found themselves on a 
prosperous trade route. Even after the construction, during the 
first century a.d., of the countless Roman military and commercial 
roads this trackway must ha\'e served as an alternative route from 
the South Coast to Londinium and the northern counties. 

Articles discovered on the site show some evidence of trade over 
a wide area, and even imported material finding its way to the 
settlement. During the middle of the first century a.d. a three- 
quarter mile long branch road was built to connect the small 
contemporary farmstead in what is now Kings Wood to the village, 
or at least, somewhat larger community, now partially beneath the 
Atwood Primarv School, Sanderstead. 



THE ATWOOD IRON AGE AND ROMANO-BRITISH SITE 37 

THE POTTERY 

EARLIER PHASES OF THE IRON AGE (iRON AGE A AND SECOND B) 

No. 1. Four sherds of a ware far cruder than any other Iron Age 
pottery found on the site and possibly of Late Bronze Age 
date. Pit 15. 

No. 2. (Fig. 2, 1). Four sherds of a shouldered bowl, fiat rimmed, of 
dark corky ware. Pit 10. 

No. 3. (Fig. 2, 2). Two fragments of the rim of a typical carinated 
bowl. Grey ware, orange coated and slightly gritted. Cf. 
Sy.A.C, XLIX (1946). 64. Pit 10. 

No. 4. Fragment of vessel similar to No. 3. Pit 12. 

No. 5. (Fig. 2, 3). Twenty-four fragments of light brown corky 
vessel, the rim of which has a flat top with a slight internal 
overhang. These sherds seem to represent one pot only. Pit 
11. 

No. 6. (Fig. 2, 4). One piece of rim of a dark corky ware. Pit 16. 

No. 7. (Fig. 2, 5). Two fragments of 'piecrust' rim. Cf. Sy.A.C, 
XLIX (1946), 66. Pit 5. 

No. 8. Two pieces of dark bluish corky ware, the holes of which 
are formed by firing out of particles of chopped straw. This 
was often added to give strength to the moist clay whilst 
building the vessel. Pit 6. 

No. 9. Black vessel with poHshed surface. Pit 16. 

No. 10. (Fig. 2, 6). Restored base and other fragments of a 
pedestal um. Fine buff ware, no grit, outswept rim. Hand- 
made. Pit 16. 

No. 11. (Fig. 2, 7). Three pieces of the base of a hand-made 
pedestal um. Light brown ware, gritted. Cf. Sy.A.C, XLIX 
(1946). 66. Pit 10. 

ROMANO-BRITISH 

Samian Ware. Forms 31 and 18/31 were liberally represented in 
Hilt 1. The former had been repaired in antiquity by riveting. 
The shattered remains of a badly eroded patera of fonn 18 was 
found in Pit 29. 

Castor Ware. Two sherds only were found of rouletted ware in Hut 1. 

Coarse Ware. 

Nos. 1, 2 and 3. (Fig. 3, 1, 2 and 3). Fragments of rim and shoulder 
of large typical mid-first century storage jars of light orange- 
coloured ware with grey core. Decorated on shoulder with 
incisions or circular hollows. Hut 1. 

No. 4. (Fig. 3, 5). Similar storage jar of hght orange ware with grey 
core. Decorated with band of incisions. Hand-made Mid-first 
century. Pit 36. 



38 THE ATVVOOD IRON AGE AND ROMANO-BRITISH SITE 

No. 5. Two pieces of an exceptionally large storage jar or amphora. 
One sherd measured 8 inches by 5 inches by 1| inches thick. 
Gritty buff Mare containing many 'bladders' or air pockets. 
Hut 1. A similar sherd was found in Pit 31. 

No. 6. (Fig. 3, 4.) Fragments of typical bead rim jar, light brown 
sandy ware. Hand-made. Pit 36. 

No. 7. Imitation of Samian vessel, form Drag. 28. Gritty ware. 
Hut 1. 

No. 8. Very crude pot of hand-made soapy ware. Decorated with 
combing and incised lines. Mid-first century a.d. Hut 1, 

No. 9. Seven fragments of similar vessel to No. 8 but undecorated. 
Hand-made. Mid-first century a.d. Hut \. 



QUERNS 
Saddle Querns 

1. Five pieces of the upper and lower stones of quern. The lower 
stone was made from a block of Wealden ironstone, the pecking 
marks being still visible on the grinding surface. The fragments 
of the upper stone were of Ightham stone, a light-coloured 
quartzite material. Second to third century B.C. Pit 5. 

2. Piece of ironstone quern. Pit 10. 

Rotary Querns 

1. A segment of the upper stone of a rotary quern, bearing the 
marks where metal implements had been honed on it after the 
quern's destruction. Made from Glauconihc sandstone from the 
Upper Greensand, the nearest beds being at Godstone. Hut 1. 

2. A few pieces only of a Niedermendig lava upper stone.'' Hut 1. 

3. Upper and lower stone of conglomerate. The upper stone is of a 
similar material to that to be found in beds on nearby Worms 
Heath, which is reputed to be the site of a series of Iron Age 
quern quarries. From spoil of drainage trench. Pit 20. 

4. Half of a Niedermendig lava quemstone.'^ Hut 2. 



11 Identified by the excavator. 

12 Identified by the excavator. 



COATS OF ARMS IN SURREY CHURCHES 

(PART V) 

BY 

H. W. POINTER, M.A. 

Beddington (Wallington) 

I. W. wall, N. end, brass. James Pigott, Admiral of the Red, 
d. 1822, age 7 ... , and his wife . . . Proby, d. 184 ... , age 74. 

On upper left comer: 

ermine, three fusils in fess gules Pigott impaling ermine, on a 

fess gules a lion passant gardant or. 
The fusils, if likened to pike heads, may be a pun on the first syllable 
of Pigott. 

II. A'', aisle, N. wall, mural marble. John Tritton, d. 1842, age 44, 
erected by his widow; also to Elizabeth Mary Biscoe, d. 1834, ago 39. 

or, on a bend gules three . . . heads . . . Tritton 

in pretence : 

or, three greyhounds courant (running briskly) B(r)iscoe. 

III. A'', aisle, N. wall, mural marble, below. Mary Barclay, d. 1827, 
age 71, wife of John Henton Tritton (d. 1833, age 79) and daughter of 
John Barclay; also their only daughter Mary Tritton (d. 1852, age 56). 

Tritton 

impaling: quarterly 1 & 4, azure, a chevron & in chief 3 crosses 

paty argent Barclay 

2 & 3 . . .6 barrulets & in chief 3 lions rampant sable . . , 

on a torse : 

CREST (no helmet) a horse statant and resting the dexter 

forefoot on a bezant. 
John Henton Tritton (see II) and Mary Barclay were parents of 
John Tritton, husband of Elizabeth Mary Biscoe (see II). For Biscoe 
see West Horsley church, and for Barclay see Shere church. 

IV. N. aisle, N. wall, mural marble. William Bridges, d. 1805, 
age 87, late of Wallington House. 

ARMS, hatched: 

(azure) 3 mitres stringed (?)... a bordure (ermine), in centre 

chief a crescent (. . .) for cadency for a second son. 

The shield is on a pediment, which supports an urn. For Bridges see 

elsewhere in the church. 

V. N. aisle, N. wall, mural marble. John Walton, d. 1802, age 63, 
husband of Anne (d, 1816, age 60) who, with only surviving sister 
Aime Walton, erected the memorial; also Anne, spinster, last of her 
father's family (d. 1823, age 72). 

above, on an urn: 

... a chevron . . . (charged with a trefoil . . .) between 3 hawk's 

vol falcon's heads . . . Walton 

impaling ... a chevron . . . between 3 martlets 

39 



40 COATS OF ARMS IN SURREY CHURCHES 

VI. A^. aisle, N. wall, mural brass. Frances, daughter of General 
William Tomlies Daltymple of Chessington Hall and wife of Sir Henry 
Bridges, d. 1859 at Beddington; also Sir Henry Bridges (1786- 
1861), buried in Ewell Churchyard. Brass set up by only surviving 
son, Rev. Alex. Henry Bridges, M.A., who erected an almshouse. 

argent, a cross ermines, charged in the centre with a pard's face 
or. Bridges impaling or, on a saltire azure nine lozenges or 
Dalrymple. 

According to a list of rectors in the Guide to the Church, 1931, by 
H. V. Molesworth Roberts, Alexander Henry ^^•as instituted Nov. 
1864. He decorated the church. The arms of Bridges are fairly 
obviously of European origin, as 'or, a cross sable' was borne by an 
ancient Flemish family of this name (see The Genealogist, N.S. VI, 
224). Other examples of similar origin are Harcourt, with 'two bars,' 
and the well-known Scots coat of Balhol an 'orle,' borne by Bailleul 
of the Low Countries; and 'Bray ancient' or Longevall, with 'gules, 
3 bendlets vair.' This last composition 'vair & gu.' or 'gu. & vair' 
seems to have been fairly common in the Pays-Bas, with chevron, 
palets and so on, instead of bendlets. (See Notes on the foreign coats 
in Planche's 'Roll of Arms,' in The Genealogist.) 

VII. N. aisle, E. wall, brass. Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., Lord 
Bishop of Oxford 1845-1869, Lord Bishop of this Diocese 
(Winchester) 1869-1873, bom 1805, died 1873. 

2 shields: 

1 on left (hatched) : — 

(gules) two keys endorsed in bend, the uppermost 

(arg.) the other (or), a sword interposed between 

them in bend sinister (arg.) pommel & hilt (or) 

See of Winchester 

impaling 

(...) an eagle displayed (sable) 

Wilberforce 

2 on right (hatched) : — 

(sa.) a fess (...) betw. in chief 3 demi-figures (...) 
ducally crowned (...), issuant from the fess, in 
base an ox passant (...) above a ford barry wavy 
(arg.) & (az.) 

See of Oxford 

impaling 
Wilberforce 

The arms of the Diocese of Winchester are frequently shown with the 
sword in bend (dexter) and the keys sinister, and with the upper key 
or and the lower argent. In any case, the sword (dagger in arms of 
London) probably commemorated St. Paul, and the keys St. Peter. 
The metals 'or' and 'argent' appear also in the arms of the Vatican, 
and the keys 'or' in the arms of the see of Exeter, and 'arg.' in the 
province of York. 



COATS OF ARMS IN SURREY CHURCHES 41 

VIII. Chancel, near W., floor brass. Rev. Broomfield Ferrers, 
rector, d. 1841, age 59. 

2 shields: — 

1 on left (hatched) : 

(or) on a bend (sable) three horse-shoes {fers de 
cheval) (arg.) in sinister chief a mullet (sa.) for 
cadency for a third son. 

Ferrers 

2 on right (...) a lion statant gardant (...) 

According to the guide by Molesworth Roberts, 1931, a rector, 
J. B. Ferrers, died 1840. (Molesworth Roberts, op. cit.) 

IX. Chancel, floor brass. Katherine, wife of Robert Berecroft, and 
her sister, Elizabeth, widow of William Barton, bom 1507. 

2 SHIELDS, each above and separate from 2 figures, and brass 
itself: 

1 (arg.) 3 bears statant (sa.) muzzled (or) Berecroft. 

2 I3ERECR0FT. 

There is a rubbing of this brass at the Sy.A.S.'s Museum, and an 
iUustration in Sy.A.C, XXV (1912), 67. 

X. Chancel, floor brass. Nicholas Carew (d. 1432) and his second 
wife, Mercy Delamare (dau. of Sir Stephen) (brass is to him and first 
wife Isabel, but first wife's arms lost). 

5 shields: 

1 upper left : (or) 3 lions passant (sa.) 

Carew 

2 upper right : Carew impaling 

(gu.) 2 lions passant 

(arg.) Delamare (second wife) 

3 centre: lost (but formerly Carew impaHng (gu.) 3 

Catherine wheels 2 & 1 (arg.) , . . (first wife) 

4 lower left : Carew 

5 lower right: lost. 

This brass is reproduced in Sy.A.C, XXV (1912), 60. 

XI. Chancel, floor brass, partly hidden. Roger Elmebrygge 
(d. 1437). 

2 shields, on part of brass visible on S. side: 

1 worn, but showing: cheeky (or) 

& (sa.) Elmebrygge 
impaling: — ( • • • ) 

(...) betw. 3 chaplets of roses (...), a label (dexter and 
sinister points quite defaced and lost) of 3 points (...) 

2 top sinister, broken :(...) a griffin segreant (...) 

A rubbing exists at the Sy.A.S's Museum, showing 2 shields on N. 
side and figure in centre. Illustrated in Sy.A.C, XXV, 66 

For Elmebrygge, see also at Banstead, and elsewhere in Surrey. 
V.C.H. calls the animal a lion rampant, but Sy.A.C correctly states 
griffin. 



42 COATS OF ARMS IN SURREY CHURCHES 

XII. Chancel, N. & S. choir stalls, misereres: 

[a) N. side, W. to E. 1-10 misereres. 
1 & 2 on W. blank. 

3-10 on N. 

3( . . . ) a cross moline ( • • • ) • • • 
4. 3 shields: 

1 centre: lozengy (...)&(...) 

2 dexter: (...) a lion rampant (...) tongue 
forked (...) within a bordure (...) bezanty 

3 sinister: (...) on a chief (...) 3 roundels 
(...) ... 

5-9 (inclusive) blank. 
10. 3 shields: 

1 centre: Bridges 

impaling: 
per chevron embattled (...)& (...) 3 martlets 
[probably counterchanged) . 
i 2 dexter: Bridges. 

3 sinister: per chevron embattled (...) & ( • • • ) 
3 martlets [probably counterchanged). 

[b) S. side E. to W. 1-9 misereres, no shields, but instead 
1-7 1 & 2 blank 

3 letter /ID 

4 blank 

5 a fieur-de-lys 

6 blank 

7 a face mitred 

8 & 9 on. W. blank. 

Certain of these misereres, or misericords, are old [c. 1420), others 
are more modern additions. I am much indebted to the Rector, 
Rev. J. H. Read, M.A., who is also local secretary, for his letter 
stating that the nine on south are fifteenth century, those on 
north being of c. 1860. 

XIII. S. [or Carew) Chapel, E. wall, N. end, mural marble. Wm. 
Gee of Beddington (d. 1815, age 69), erected by widow Ann Paston 
Gee, nee Gould (d. 1828, age 71). 

above, arms : qly. of four, 

1 & 4, (gu) a sword in bend (arg.) pommel & hilt (or) 

Gee 

2 & 3, qly. 1 & 4 (arg.) & (gu.) in 2 & 3 a frer (or), 

over all a bend (sable) 

Despencer 
impaling : 

(...) on a chevron (...) betw. 3 roses (...) 
3 trefoils (...) 

Gould 
CREST : an armed arm holding a sword in bend sinister. 



COATS OF ARMS IN SURREY CHURCHES 



43 




Care to. 






44 



COATS OF ARMS IN SURREY CHURCHES 



XIV. S. Chapel, S. wall, E. end, large monument. Sir Francis 
Carew (d. 1611, age 81, unmarried), adopted his sister and heir 
Anne's son (by Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, who adopted, as son of 
his mother, the surname Carew and arms of Carew (upper left and 
lower centre inscription)). (See Page 43.) 

above: achievement, quarterly of 12, i.e. 4, 4, 4. 

1. or, 3 lions passant sable 

2. arg. 3 serpents coiled vert Lordship of 

3. gu. a maunch. ermine, the hand proper 
holding a fleur-de-lys or 

4. quarterl}' sa. & arg. 

5. gu. a fess countercompany 
sa. & arg. betw. 6 crosslets 
or 

6. az. 3 sinister hands (mains) couped arg. 

7. ermine, on a chief az. 3 crosses paty arg. 

8. az. a fret arg. & a chief gu. 

9. arg. a lion rampant queue fourchee sable 

10. gu. a fess dancetty betw. 6 crosslets or 

1 1 . barry of 6 ermine & gu. over all 3 crescents 
arg. 

12. arg. 3 piles wavy vert, within a bordure 
(dimidiated) az. bezanty 

crest: surmounting monument, and not achievement? 
round top ... a demi-lion rampant issuent . . . 
6 spears in saltire points upwards. 

Carew 
Six shields bordering left and right of the 2 inscription 
slabs on the monument, which are on left, right 
respectively. 

Left 

1. qty sa. and arg. Hoo imp. arg. a 1. 
lion rampant queue fourchee sa. 
Welles 

2. or 3 lions passant sable Carew imp. 
Hoo 

3. Carew imp. gu. a lion rampant 
arg. within a bordure (dimidiated) 
az. charged with bezants [should 
be escallops) Oxen bridge 

4. Carew imp. arg. 3 piles wavy vert 
within a bordure az. bezanty 
Bryan 

5. ... 3 serpents coiled Carew as lord 
of Idron imp. gu. a maunch ermine, 
the hand . . . holding a fleur-de-lys 
. . . Mohun 



Carew 
Idron 

Mohun 

Hoo 

St. Maur 

vet 

St. Omer^ 

Malmayns 

Wichingham 

St. Leger 

Welles 

Engayne 

Waterton 

Bryan 

out of a 
between 



Right 
Hoo imp. Welles 



2. Carew imp. Hoo 

3. Carew imp. 
Oxenbridge 



Carew imp. 
Bryan 

Carew as lord of 
Idron imp. 
Mohun 



I There is a footnote which is relevant in John Gough Nichol's article on the 
famil}' of Xewdegate {Sy.A.C, VI (1874), 234, n.2) which seems to dispose 
of this alternative. 



COATS OF ARMS IN SURREY CHURCHES 45 

6. Carew imp. azure, on a cross 6. Carew imp. More 
argent 5 martlets sa. More 

below on pediment, on which is efifigy, inscription slab above 5 
sons, to left of which is shield, over kneeling effigies of husband 
and wife. Sir Nicholas Throckmorton (later Carew and Marie 
dau. of Sir Geo. More of Loseley) gu., on a chevron arg. 3 
gemelles sa. Throckmorton imp. More 
to right of inscription is shield, over 2 daughters kneeling qly. 

1. Throckmorton 

2. Carew 

3. More 

4. oxenbridge 

The presence of two inarriages of Mohuns, with different arms, 
renders it necessary to explain which of the two is quartered in 
the achievement, it appearing to be the one in the direct line (in 
this case the senior line of baronets of Ireland). As a fact, however, 
Mohun should not be quartered at Beddington. But to proceed, 
John, Baron of Carew and Idron (d. 1324) married as first wife, 
Eleanor dau. and coheir of Sir Wm. Mohun of Mohun 's Ottery, 
Devon, by her having a son Nicholas, who however ob.s.p. 1324. 
Nicholas bequeathed his mother's inheritance to his half-brother 
John (son of John Carew, above, by his second wife, Joan Talbot) 
who married Margaret Mohun of Dunster. The latter's arms were 
or, a cross engrailed sable, quite different from the maunch ermine, 
though I am informed that the cross engrailed was the original 
arms later changed to the maunch^ 

It is not known why Mohun is quartered as Mohun was ancestor 
of the Carews (Baronets of Ireland) and not of the Carews (of 
Beddington), neither is it known why Wichingham is quartered 
unless property passed {cp. the case of Percy and Lucy). 

In the Mohun armorial fireback in the Guildford Museum, the 
first 2 quarters of the 20 quarterings (lowest 5 obliterated) are 
Mohun of Mohun's Ottery, and Mohun of Dunster, but this 
is because the former was a descendant of Mohun, Lord of 
Dunster. 

See an article [Ancestor, V, 44) by J. Horace Round, who also 
points out the spurious character of 3 of the quarterings in the 
shield on the Stratford-upon-Avon monument (Carew, Earl of 
Totnes), which appear among the quarterings in the illustration in 
the Ancestor. V.C.H., instead of Idron, has incorrectly Ellis, and 
blazons the serpents as eels, thereby showing a pun on the name. 

^The first part of the word maunch, i.e. maun, is probably a pun on the name 
Mohun. The left hands (i.e. not right hands), French mains, are probably mal 
here, and a pun on Malmayns. Left hands are here used in a bad sense, as 
sinister was by Sherlock Holmes! Left hands, however, have not always a bad 
sense, as witness the surname Loveden, where the left hands are a pun on love 
and the wedding-ring finger. Maltravers, with its 'fretty' is allusive to what 
would be a bad or difficult crossing {mal-travers). 



46 COATS OF ARMS IN SURREY CHURCHES 

Coll. Top. et Gen., V, pp. 93-9 refer us to Smith's History of Cork 
as containing information about the Carews (p. 94). In Queen 
Elizabeth's reign Sir Peter Carew came from England and claimed 
half of the county of Cork and barony of Hidron in Co. Carlow; but 
his death put a stop to all proceedings. 

Bentham's History has a reproduction of a photograph of this 
Beddington monument, facing p. 59. 

XV. S. wall, further W., monument. Sir Richard Carew (d. 1520) 
and his wife Matyn Oxenbridge. 

top centre : qly. 1 & 4 Carew, 2 & 3 Hoo 

top left : Carew qtg. Hoo impaling 

Oxenbridge (bordure dimidiated) 

top right : Oxenbridge 
on upper surface of pediment 2 brass effigies. Sir Richard and Malyn ; 
on Sir Richard, tabard: Carew qtg. Hoo & on each shoulder: 
Carew qtg. Hoo. 

The Oxenbridge lions rampant are 'langued gules,' but as the field is 
'gules,' the tongues are for artistic reasons, fimbriated. Most lions' 
tongues on a 'gules' field are 'azure' and on an 'azure' field are 
'gules.' According to Wm. Ratcliff, who is stated to have visited the 
church in June 1805, Sir Richard's wife Malyn's figure was there in 
heraldic mantle, but this is now lost. (Bentham's History, illustration 
of monument, facing p. 28). 

XVI. S. wall, above XV, mural marble. Sir Nicholas Hacket Carew, 
Bt. (d. 1762, age 42), and his wife Catharine eldest dau. of John 
Martin (she d. 1762, age 41), also their dau. Catharine (d. 1769, 
age 27), also to the memory of Richard Gee (d. 1816, age 71). 

quarterly of 13 (4, 4, 5). 

1. Carew, 2. Oxenbridge, 3. Mohun, 4. Hoo, 
5. St. Omer, 6. Idron, 7. Wichingham, 8. St. Leger, 
9. Welles, 10. Engaine, 11. Waterton, 12. Bryan, 
13. Hacket (arg.) 3 fleurs-de-lys between two bendlets 

(gu.) 
Sir Nicholas Hacket Carew, Bt., was son of Sir Nicholas Carew by 
Anne Hacket. The quarterings here are not well marshalled 
(Malmayns is omitted), though they are on XIV, and on the 
achievement on the gate of Beddington House, next to the church 
and now an orphanage, where they are more correctly (for Sir 
N. H. Carew 's parents), 

Carew, Idron, Mohun, Hoo, St. Omer, Malmayns, Wichingham, 
St. Leger, Welles, Engaine, Waterton, Bryan, with Hacket 
in pretence. 

XVII. S. aisle, S. wall, mural marble. Elizabeth Heather (dau. 
of John and Anne) wife of Wm. Chapman, by whom one child, 
Robert; she died 1718, age 40. 

at top: per chevron ...&...(? and a chief, but arms partly 
defaced) 

Chapman, impahng paly of six az. 
& or, on a chief or, a fess dancetty gules Heather. 



COATS OF ARMS IN SURREY CHURCHES 47 

For another Chapman, see a hatchment at Esher, St. George's. 
For yet another, see Tooting church, and, in glass, on S. side of 
Chapel Royal, Savoy. 

XVIII. S. aisle, S. wall, large brass on . . . slab. Andrew Collyer- 
Bristow of Beddington (1794-1861), erected by his widow (Mary, 
d. 1867). 

on brass, qly. 1 & 4 ermine, on a fess sa., cottised compony 
az. & sa., a sun between 2 crescents or 

Bristow 
2 & 3, gu., a chevron engrailed or, charged with 3 palets sa., on 
each a leaf or, betw. 3 bear's heads erased or 

COLLYER 

There is possibly a somewhat hidden pun on the first syllable of 
Bristow, viz. a sun, a brightly shining object! There are also other 
memorials of this family on the wall and also in glass, but without 
heraldry. 

XIX. S. aisle, S. wall, cartouche-shaped mural marble. Nicholas 
Carew (d. 1721) and his wife Anna Lennard dau. of Sir Stephen 
Lennard, Bt., of Wickham. 

at top: Carew impaling: or, on a fess gules 3 fieurs-de-lys or 
(almost defaced) Lennard 
For these arms of Lennard see also Guildford, St. Nicolas, Loseley 
Chapel, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, later Carew, married Mary 
More, whose brother Sir Robert More (qly. of 25) married Frances 
Lennard (qly. of 20), for whose shield see the Loseley Chapel afore- 
mentioned. 

XX. S. aisle, S. wall, If. of S. porch, brass on marble slab. Alex. 
Henry Bridges (d. 1891), Hon. Canon of Winchester (Rector of 
Beddington from 1864) 

arms above brass: (hatched) arg. on a cross (ermines) a pard's 
face (or) Bridges 
at base of slab: 1 (left) Bridges 
2 (right) Bridges 
He, 'by his minificence,' largely restored the church. For Bridges 
see also IV, VI, Xlla 10. He was only surviving son of Sir Henry 
(see VI) to whom he set up a brass. 

XXI. W. tower, S. side, floor, ledger-stone. Bourchier Walton 
(d. 1779, age 70), sixth son of Wm. and Phihppa. 

qly: 1 & 4 (...) a chevron (...) betw. 3 hawk's heads 

erased (...) Walton in dexter chief a mullet (...) for 

cadency for a third son. 

2 & 3 (arg.) a cross engrailed (gu.) betw. 4 botigets (sa.) 

Bourchier 
Bourchier Walton was son of Wm. Walton and Philippa Bourchier, 
dau. and coheiress of John, of Essex, M.D. For Bourchier see also 
Godalming (roof bosses). West Horsley (glass) and Mortlake (font). 



48 COATS OF ARMS IN SURREY CHURCHES 

XXII. W. tower, N. side, further E., floor, ledger-stone. Anne (?) 
(d.? 1721) dau. of Wm. Garland. 

on a lozenge: paly of six (...)&(...) on a chief (...) 
a garland (...) on dexter & a demi-lion rampant (...) on 
sinister Garland 

The inscription is almost defaced. For Garland, see Epsom (church- 
yard). 

XXIII. W. tower, standing on floor, antique clock, ^narked G.R., 
dated 1718. 

arms: between the 17 and the 18 of the date (Geo. I was king.) 

qly: I. (...) a lion rampant (...) (double tressure flory- 

counterflory omitted) for Scotland impahng: (gu.) 3 

lions passant gardant (or) for England (this should be 

reversed as England imp. Scotland). 

II. (az.) 3 fleurs-de-lys (or) France (modem). 

III. (az.) a harp (or) stringed (arg.) Ireland 

impaling: 
I per chevron (...)&(...) in chief (blank, but should 

be gu. 2 lions passant gardant or, Brunswick, imp. or, 
seme of hearts gu. a lion rampant az. Luneberg) 
in base a horse courant (...) Westphalia vel 
Hanover, in centre a circle (blank but should be gu. a 
representation of the crown of Charlemagne or). 

IV. France (modem) imp. a lion rampant (for 
Scotland) from upper dexter & sinister corners, & base 
comer, a demi-fleur-de-lys issuant (instead of the 
tressure) . 

This is perhaps worth recording, if only as an example of the mistakes 
liable to be made by a designer, uncertain of the arms of even the 
reigning sovereign. He has quarter I nearly correct, but reverses 
England and Scotland and misses the Scottish 'tressure.' II he has 
correct, III he has Ireland correctly but impales an attempt at 
Hanover with it, instead of the line of impalement being this line 
dividing II and IV, i.e. Ireland & Hanover. He now finds himself 
with a blank IV, and so he fills this up with France impaling 
Scotland, with an attempt at what might have been a 'tressure.' 
This Scottish tressure has been found difficult in foreign heraldic 
books. In the Swedish peerage, Sveriges Adels Kalender, (1910) it 
appears in two different forms each incorrect. In Guelfi's Vocabolario 
Araldico, (1897) it appears once, incorrectly. 

XXIV. Outside church, IF. tower, two shields: 

1. on North. Province of Canterbury. 

2. on South. See of Winchester. 

XXV. Outside church, S. side: left & right, an angel holding a 
shield 

1. Province of Canterbury. 

2. Province of Canterbury. 



COATS OF ARMS IN SURREY CHURCHES 49 

XXVI. Chitrchvard, S. of church, E. of S. porch door, flat stone. 
Charles Hallowell Carew (1829-1872) also Benjamin Francis 
Hallowell Carew (1830-1879). 
ARMS, W. end : qly of four : 

1 & 4 Carew, in dexter chief an anchor (for Royal Navy) 

2 & 3 (...) on a chevron (hatched sable) betw. 2 
roundels, in dexter & sinister chief, 3 bezants, above the 
chevron in centre chief a naval crown (Royal Navy) 

Hallowell 
2 CRESTS (no helmets) : 
Dexter: Carew. 

Sinister: issuant from a Naval Crown a demi-Uon 
rampant gardant, holding in the forepaws a trident (for 
King Neptune.) 

SUPPORTERS : on either side an heraldic tiger. 

Papworth and Morant's Ordinary has no roundels in chief. For 
unheraldic and seemingly unofficial additions to shields (here for 
Royal Naval honours) compare at Cobham church which has a small 
sphinx on the shield of one in the Egyptian service. According to 
Coll. Top. et Gen., V, 173, Admiral Sir Benjamin, grandfather of the 
two above, took the name and arms of Carew with the distinction of 
an anchor erect in a canton sable, as not being of the blood of Carew. 
The fact remains that an anchor must have been chosen as he was of 
the Royal Navy. 

The Carew estates came through the marriage of the Carews 
with the Gees, the Gees with the Goulds and the Goulds with the 
Hallowells. The estates were sold to the committee of the Lambeth 
Female Orphan Asylum, Beddington Park House becoming an 
orphanage. See coat of arms on gate (with Hacket in pretence) and 
on wall of Great Hall of the house (now orphanage). Admiral Sir 
Benjamin (bom 1760) was under Nelson at the Nile and took the 
French flagship L'Orient. For reproductions of his portrait, see 
Bentham's History of Beddington, facing p. 27. 

XXVII. Churchyard, S. of church, further E., table tomb. John 
Jones (d. . . . , age . . .) and Susanna Hillar, his widow (d. 1704), also 
John (son of John) (d. 1705, age 2 years, 9 months, 3 weeks). N. 
face, Robt. Hillar (d. 1704 age 76) father of Susannah. 

top, W. end (...) a lion rampant (...) 
Inscription slightly defaced. See Bax, Epitaphs, I, 504-505. Jolm 
Jones (d. 1723, age 39), Susanna dau. of Robt. Hillar, widow (d. 1704, 
age 32) also John (son of John) (d. 1705, age 2 years, 9 mths, 3 weeks). 

XXVIII. Churchyard, S. & W. of church, table tomb. Elizabeth 
Jennings (d. 1771, age 98). 

top, W. end. (...) a chevron (...) between 3 griffin's heads 
erased (...), on a chief (...) a lion passant 
(...) betw. 2 serpents coiled vel. two annulets 
(...) 



50 COATS OF ARMS IN SURREY CHURCHES 

Inscription slightly defaced. Shield shape, somewhat as quatrefoil. 
For ladies an ornamental shape is not unusual. Jennyns, on a 
monument in Botisham church, Cambs., has: az. a chevron betw. 3 
griffin's heads erased arg., on a chief or a lion passant gu. betw. 2 
torteauxes. (See Robson, British Herald, 1830, II.) 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA TO VOLUME LV 

Page 21, in upper part of pedigree on left side (first five lines) 'de 

Someri' and 'de Dudley' should be in itahcs. 
Page 36, XXI References: 'Riestap' should read 'Rietstap'. 

XXIII References: Body on Heraldry should read Body of 
Heraldry. 
Page 38, XXVIII, second line: 'Frances Heer' should read 'Frances 

Fleet'. 
Page 39, XXXII, paragraph beginning 'she was . . . ,' fifth line, 

XXXI should read XXX. 
Page 40, line 6, the colon should be omitted after 'it' and should 

appear after 'crests'. 



THE CIVIL WAR 
IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

'A BOOKE OF MY ACCOMPTES OF PHILLIPP MELLERSH 

LATE HIGH CONSTABLE OF THE HUNDRED OF 

GODALMING' 

SUMMARY AND COMMENTS 
BY 

F. G. MELLERSH, m.a., f.c.a. 

A true and perfect Accompte of all the moneyes which I have receaved 

and paide since the beginninge of this present Parliament; by vertue of any 

Order or Ordinance of Parliament or by vertue of any Warrant whatsoever 

to mee directed. 

* * * 

A particular Accompt of all the Warrants which I have issued forth for 
moneyes and provision for the Army which was to bee paid to the Treasurer 
of this County and to the Proviand Master and Commissary of Sir William 
Waller's Army; of which I never receaved any part thereof but what I have 
made receaved in this booke. 

THE book is among the Commonwealth Exchequer Papers at 
the Pubhc Record Office (S.P.28 Bundle No. 177)*; a photo 
copy is available for reference in the Society's Library at 
Castle Arch, Guildford. It has forty numbered pages, 5 by 8 inches, 
followed by several blank pages, and contains fifty-five separate 
documents covering the period from 3 May 1643 to 4 January 
1644/45. The first six items record the purposes for which Philip 
Mellersh collected money and the acquittances he obtained; the 
remaining forty-nine give the names of those who issued Warrants 
to him, and, in the case of requisitions for money, horses and 
provisions, the proportions he charged on the ti things or parishes or, 
as quoted above, 'A particular Account of aU the Warrants which I 
have issued forth'; one of the Warrants was for a Schedule of 
Estates, and one required men between eighteen and fifty years of 
age to report to Sir Richard Onslow. The final entry is that the 
Account was delivered on oath to four members of the Surrey 
County Committee (County Committees were set up by Parliament 
to administer its Ordinances) . 

Whilst the book is not, in the modern sense, an Account Book, nor 
is it 'a true and perfect account,' it does indicate the impact of the 
Civil War on a rural part of England which, although not the scene 
of actual fighting, was adjacent to the base of one of the Parliamenta- 
rian armies, at Famham Castle, and within a few miles of the 

• Crown-copyright records in the Public Record Office have been published by 
permission of the Controller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

51 



52 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

Royalist stronghold at Basing House. An army based on Famham 
could prevent a Royalist army from attacking London from the 
south-west or from seizing the iron-works in Surrey and Sussex and 
the powder mills in the Tillingbourne Valley, and could protect 
the important trade route from the south-western counties to 
London; Basing House, isolated as it was, was of no strategic 
importance for the Royalists but it had prestige value, and a 
nuisance value because, being on the south-west route to London, 
the garrison could impede the transport of goods to London. The 
book is clearly a 'fair copy' of various notes and records and was 
called a 'perfect account' so as to conform with the Ordinance of 22 
February 1643/44: — 

Whereas divers sums of money and other goods have been 
raised levied and taken by divers persons, partly by virtue of 
several Acts of Parliament, Ordinances, and Orders of both or one 
of the Houses of Parliament, and partly by pretence and colour 
of the said z\cts. Orders and Ordinances, or some of them, and bj' 
other persons without any authority at all, upon pretence never- 
theless for the use or service of the Commonwealth : The Lords and 
Commons in Parliament think it very necessary, and do ordain 
That all and every the Receivers of such sums of Money, Goods and 
other things, shall make a perfect Accompt of all and every the 
said Sums and Goods. ^ 

Philip Mellersh, a wealthy clothier at Godahning, was lord of the 
manor of Famcombe which he had obtained by marrying a distant 
cousin, Olive Launder, a direct descendant of John Mellersh who liad 
acquired the manor from James Skynner in 1553. John Mellersli of 
Famcombe, who died in 1568, left the manor to his son John, but it 
would seem that he was not the John Mellersh who, after a 
disastrous legal action in which he attempted to falsify the evidence, 
sold the manor of Rake in Witley to Henry Bell in 1591 or 1592.- 
Philip Mellersh was a signatory to the Articles against Nicholas 
Andrewes, Vicar of Godalming, presented to Parliament in 1640 
(which led to the imprisonment and subsequent death of the \'icar 
as a result of the 'barbarous treatment and confinement'^), but it 
does not follow that he was a 'Cromwellian' Puritan. When, as he 
frequently did, he wrote 'Another warrant from . . .'he may have 
emphasised the word Another, and, judging by the manner in which 
he appears to have carried out his duties, he may have been a 
Royalist. It is well known that many who acted for, and contributed 
to, the forces of Parliament were Royalists (see the comment on the 
Warrant of 18 September 1643), but had they not done so they 
would have been classified as 'delinquents' and their estates 
sequestrated. According to George Wither, who was Governor of 
Famham Castle in 1642, 'in the four hundreds of Surrey adjacent to 

I Ordinances, 387. 
^Sy.A.C. XVIII, 21. 
iSy.A.C. II, 210. 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 53 

Famham there were not six gentlemen well affected to Parliament/'* 
but as he was trying to excuse himself for surrendering the castle to 
the Royalists he was no doubt exaggerating. 

Mellersh, as high Constable, was responsible for the northern 
division of the hundred of Godalming, \iz. the town of Godalming 
and the tithings of x\rtington, Catteshall (usually included with 
Godalming), Compton, Eashing, Fanicombe (with which were 
included Binscombe and Hurtmore), Hambledon, Laboume 
(Enton),5 Peper Harow, Puttenham, Shackleford and Tuesley. The 
southern division, which consisted of Chiddingfold, Haslemere, 
Thursley and Witley, was in the charge of Richard Smith, a direct 
descendant of the Henry Bell to whom John Mellersh sold Rake;^ 
Mellersh probably refers to him as 'my partner' because they were 
each responsible for part of the hundred. 

A summary of the items requisitioned is given on pp. 74-5, but it 
should be treated with reserve. On most occasions the charges are 
made on the town of Godalming and on the tithings, but sometimes, 
particularly when money was charged, the charges were on parishes, 
and the parish of Godalming included the tithings of Binscombe, 
Catteshall, Eashing, Famcombe, Hurtmore, Laboume, Shackleford 
and Tuesley;'' all charges on the town and on the parish of Godalming 
have been grouped under the heading 'Godalming' although some 
items may have been re-charged on the inhabitants of the constituent 
tithings; furthermore, on the rare occasions when the authorities 
promised to pay for pro\'isions Mellersh charged the whole amount 
on Godalming. The unallocated charges are unduly high because 
warrants frequently state that the total was charged on the tithings 
in the 'same proportion as before,' but it is not clear whether 'as 
before' means 'as before in the book' or 'as before in point of time.' 

Twenty-three Warrants were issued by General Waller and 
officers at Famham Castle, and ten by Sir Richard Onslow, either 
alone or in conjunction with others, for Waller's army or for Famham 
Castle ; sixteen were issued by Onslow, usually with 'members of the 
Committee of the West Division of Surrey,' and often with Nicolas 
Stoughton, apparently for Onslow's own regiment ; five Warrants for 
money were issued by others, and one Warrant by Maj .-Gen. Browne. 
At this stage of the war Sir Richard Onslow,^ who exercised consider- 
able influence, was perhaps the leading Parliamentarian in the West 
Division of Surrey, bvit later on doubts arose as to his integrity; 
after the fall of Basing House in October 1645 he gave up his 
militar)^- career until 1651 when he obeyed an order to join Cromwell 
with a regiment, but while the decisive battle of Worcester was 
being fought he dallied and did not reach Cromwell's army until the 
following day, Cromwell subsequently declaring in the House of 
Commons that if 'the fox of Surrey,' as he called Onslow, had come 

4 V.C.H. Surrey, I, 407. 

5 Brayley, V, 220. 
('Sy.A.C, XVIII, 23. 
7 Braylev, V. 199. 
»Sy.A.C.. XXXVI, 62. 



54 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

up before the battle, it was uncertain on which side he would have 
fought. 9 

The main object of the book was to show that Mellersh himself 
had not received any of the requisitioned items and most warrants 
conclude as follows : — "Which said several quantities of provision I 
never received nor any part thereof,' T never received any part or 
parcel thereof,' 'never received any part or parcel thereof nor any 
to my use,' T nor any man by my appointment received any part,' 
' I never received any one of them nor any man to my use or by my 
appointment.' Except on a few occasions he gives no indication as 
to whether or not the warrants were obeyed by the tithings or 
parishes, and he does not seem to have cared: 3 May 1643 'neither 
know I whether they were served in or not ; they being to be served 
in by the petty constables . . . and not by me'; 24 May 1643 'They 
were to be delivered by the persons mentioned'; 13 March 1643/4 
'but what was served in I know not for I left men to their own 
discretions to serve in what they pleased' ; 1 April 1644 'neither do I 
know what was served in thereof.' On one occasion, 16 April 1644, 
he states that 'none were served in' and on four occasions, 26 
February 1643/44, 12 March 1643/44, 15 June 1644 and 10 July 1644. 
he does make it clear that his orders were carried out. However, it is 
likely that at any rate most of the warrants issued by Waller and his 
officers were effective. 

In addition to money for maimed soldiers and for the poor clergy 
in Ireland the half hundred had to find two months' tax to Famham, 
two weeks' pay for Famham, money for the soldiers at Basing, and 
money for the use of Waller's Army. On top of all this, weekly 
contributions had also to be made towards the national expenditure : 
3 February 1643/44 for eight weeks, 26 February 1643/44 for four 
weeks, and 30 March 1644 for, most unfortunately, an unspecified 
period; also, on 18 March 1643/44 the half hundred had to pay 
£59. 0. 2., part of £454 charged on the West Division of Surrey. 
However, it is improbable that all the money assessed was in fact 
paid.'° 

One of the greatest difficulties was to meet the demands for horses. 
At this time the method adopted by the Parliamentarian authorities 
was to assess the hundred to provide a given number of horses, but 
occasionally the assessments were made on individuals; on two 
occasions (18 September 1643 and 19 May 1644) the persons 
cissessed had the option of paying money instead. In nearly every 
case Mellersh, having allocated the total charge amongst the parishes 
or tithings 'left it to mens discretions to serve in what they pleased.' 
If the requisitions for the large number of horses had been enforced 
it would have been exceedingly difficult for farmers to carry on, and 
at a later date it was ruled that not more than half a team should be 
taken from any one person. An Ordinance of 30 September 1644 for 
raising eleven hundred horses for the Earl of Essex from Berks, 



9 Clandon Park. 
10 Wedgwood, 419. 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 55 

Dorset, Hants, Oxon and Wilts (but not from Surrey) included the 
following 

. . . and such persons as the Lord-General shall appoint to raise 
the said number of Horses are to give a note in writing unto each 
party from whom a Horse shall be taken, of the value colour and 
marks of the horse, testifying likewise that the party is to repair 
unto the Committee of that County, where upon proof of the value 
he shall receive satisfaction, and whosoever shall do contrar}^ shall 
suffer death. And if any appointed by the Lord-General as afore- 
said to take Horses, shall take any money for sparing of any 
horses or releasing any horses being taken, shall upon proof be 
cashiered ipso facto and shall be subject to such further punishment 
as the Lord-General shall think fit." 

After the period covered by the book the purchase price was 
normallv: — Troopers £7.10. 0., Dragoons £4, Baggage and Artillery 
£6.- 

As regards provisions, fodder, etc., contrary to what is generally 
believed, it was only on two occasions (15 and 20 May 1644) that 
payment was promised, and when bread had been delivered but 
could not be consumed by the army (1 June 1644 and 16 November 
1644) the wretched inhabitants had to buy it back for cash. 
Presumably it was not until a later date that a system was 
introduced, but not always carried out, whereby supplies were 
requisitioned under promise of future payment, debentures being 
given, and the value deducted from the soldiers' pay. It is to be 
hoped the County Committee made due allowance for supplies in 
kind when making monetary assessments or contributions 'without 
which particular persons will be undone, because they cannot say 
who hurt them. ''3 The large quantities of bread and cheese are 
noteworthy; where there were ovens the soldiers made 'biscuit' out 
of the bread and this ration was so popular that in 1657 and 1658 
the soldiers in Flanders grumbled when they could not get it.'+ 

The following are extracts from, and the background of, the 
documents in chronological order, the numbers in brackets before 
the date are the pages in the book, from which it will be gathered 
that its compilation was not very methodical. f 

(15) 3 May 1643. 

A Warrant from Nath. Whetham an officer of Farnham Castle, for three 
feather beds; eleven flockbeds with bolsters, sheets and blankets rugs 
coverlets and all things thereunto belonging and two bedsteads . . . which 
I charged upon my half hundred as follows : — . . . 

Sir Richard Onslow had established a garrison in Farnham Castle 
under George Wither, the poet, who evacuated it in October 1642, '5 

fExcept in the opening quotations, modern spelling has been used. 

" Ordinances, 514. 

12 Firth, 243. 

13 Firth, 219 
u Firth, 223. 
^iSy.A.C. XXXVI, 62. 



56 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

but Waller re-captured it at the end of 1642, blowing in the Castle 
Gate on 1 December 1642 and destroying the wall of the Keep on 
29 December 1642: early in 1643, until September 1644, WaUer 
made his headquarters in the Bishop's House'^ and the furniture 
charged by this warrant was no doubt for his staff. Colonel Samuel 
Jones, of whom more anon, was Governor of the Castle. 

(26) 6 May 1643. 

A Warrant from Sir Richaid Onslow Knight Sir Robert Parkhurst Knight 
and Nicolas Stoughton Esqr., to warn the assessors in every parish in my 
half hundred to assess and tax the several sums of money hereunder charged 
by them . . . 

On 24 February 1642/43 an Ordinance had been made charging 
Surrey 'besides the Borough of Southwark' with the weekly amount 
of £400 for three months from 1 March 1642/43; other amounts 
charged included Southwark, Newington Butts and Lambeth £300, 
Devon £1,800, Kent, Norfolk and Suffolk each £1,250.'7 This 
Warrant was for a total of £94. 6. 8., but it does not state that it was 
to be paid weekly. 

(24) 24 May 1643. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight and Nicolas Stoughton 

Esqr for two dragoon horses . . . charged by them on the several persons 

in my half hundred hereunder mentioned to be served in at Guildford. 

These horses were charged on individuals, two named individuals 
at Godalming having to provide one of the horses, and one individual 
at Eashing, Binscombe, Hurtmore and Shackleford having to provide 
jointly the other horse. The date of this warrant has been altered to 
or from 1644; as this warrant and that of 10 June 1643 were both 
issued by Onslow and Stoughton it has been assumed that the correct 
year is 1643. Dragoons were mounted infantry armed with muskets 
of full bore but only 16 inches long.^^ 

(25) 10 June 1643. 

A Warrant from the said Sir Richard Onslow, Knight, Sir Robert 

Parkhurst, Knight and Nicolas Stoughton Esqr to require me to give 

warning to the several constables of the several parishes under written to 
send into Farnham Castle so many dragoon horses with accoutrements as is 
hereunder mentioned . . . 

Six parishes were charged with a total of eight horses with saddles 
and bridles. 

(24) 19 August 1643. 

A Warrant from the said Richard Onslow Knight Samuel Jones colonel 
and Nicolas Stoughton Esqr., ... to bring in the names with a Schedule of 
the estates of all such persons in my half hundred valued at Ten pounds per 
annum or a ;^100 personal estate and to summon all such persons to appear 
before them at the Red Lion in Guildford for which I sent warrants to the 
petty constables . . . 

^6Sy.A.C., XXII, 114. 
17 Ordinances, 86. 
i8 Firth, 43. 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 57 

The Ordinance authorising this warrant was dated 7 May 1643, 
and the wording is of sufficient interest to justify its quotation at 
length : — 

Whereas the King seduced by evil counsel hath raised an Army 
and levied war against His Parliament, and great numbers of 
Forces are daily raised under the commands of the Papists and 
other ill affected persons, by commissions from His Majesty. And 
whereas divers Delinquents are protected by His Majesty's Army 
from public Justice, and sundry outrages and rapines are daily 
committed by the soldiers of the said Army, who neither respect 
the Laws of God or the Land, but bum and phmder the houses, 
and seize and destroy the persons and goods of divers of His 
Majesty's subjects. And whereas for the maintenance of the said 
Army divers assessments are made upon several Counties and 
persons of vast and insupportable sums of money and His 
Majesty's subjects are compelled to pay the same, which said 
Army (if it should continue) would soon ruin and waste the 
Kingdom and utterly overthrow Religion, Law and Liberty. For 
suppressing of which said Army, and ill affected persons, there is 
no probable way under God, but by the Army raised by the 
Authority of the Lords and Commons, which said Army cannot be 
maintained without great sums of money. Yet for raising such 
sums, by reason of His Majesty's withdrawing himself from the 
advice of Parliament there can be no Act of Parliament passed 
with His Majesty's assent, albeit there is great justice that the 
said monies should be raised . . . 

It then states that whereas the Army had hitherto been maintained 
by voluntary loans and contributions those who had not helped 
should be charged, on lands not to be rated above one-fifth of the 
yearly income, and on goods and chattels and personal estate not 
more than one-twentieth of the value. ^9 

(16) 16 September 1643. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight and Nicolas Stoughton 
Esqr., . . . for three good flock beds with coverlets and sheets to be carried 
to Farnham Castle . . . 

(32) 18 September 1643. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Kt. and others of the committee . . . 
commanding me to warn the several persons hereunder mentioned to send 
to Guildford either so many horses with saddles and pistols as were then 
charged on them or else ;^16 for each horse so charged on them by the said 
committee as follows: 

Seventeen horses were requisitioned from seventeen men of wealth 
and importance. Captain Quennell of Field Place, Compton, had to 
provide one horse; he had subscribed ;^10 to the loan levied by the 
King in 1625 and his family were staunch Royalists who, as long as 
they were permitted to do so 'made gunns and shott for supply of 

19 Ordinances, 145. 



58 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

His Majesty's stores at Imbhams furnace' near Haslemere.^° Sir 
William Ellyott of Busbridge, Edward More of Godalming, Sir 
Poynings More of Loseley were each charged with two horses. 

(7) 13 November 1643. 

A Warrant from the said Mr. Cowlinge for twenty hundred of bread; 
seven hundred and a half of cheese; five dozen of butter; three hogsheads 
of beer ; ten muttons ; and half a beef er . . . 

The 'said Mr. CowUnge' was Proviand Master General to Waller, 
who had recently been appointed to the command of the South 
Eastern Association created by the Ordinance of 4 November 
1643:— 

Whereas Papists and other wicked and ill affected Persons have 
traitorously combined together and entered into Association and 
have raised, and do daily raise, great Forces, both of Horse and 
Foot, in several Counties of this Kingdom and hath plundered, 
spoiled and destroyed. Multitudes of His Majesty's good Subjects 
and, if not timely prevented, will utterly subvert and destroy the 
true Protestant Religion (which is their chief est design), the Laws 
of the Land, the Privileges of Parliament and Liberties of the 
Subject: The Lords and Commons now in Parliament assembled 
do Declare That they hold it most fit and necessary for the present 
State of this Kingdom, and do accordingly Order, That all 
Committees nominated by virtue of this present Ordinance, 
Colonels, Captains and other Officers, and all other well-affected 
Persons, Inhabitants of the several Counties of Hampshire, the 
Town and County of Southampton, Sussex, Surrey and Kent, 
shall and may associate themselves, and mutually aid, succour, 
and assist one another, in the mutual Defence and Preservation of 
themselves, and of the Peace of the said Counties . . .-^ 

It was hoped that by creating an Association of counties men 
belonging to one county would be induced to fight in another county. 
As a consequence of this Ordinance Waller became the commander 
of seven thousand" horse and foot which attacked Basing House on 
7 November 1643; they made three ineffectual attempts to carry the 
place by storm, suffered heavy losses and the Londoners when 
ordered to assault cried out 'Home! home!' and deserted in a body,^^ 
so that after ninety days Waller was forced to retreat to Farnham. 

(33) 12 December 1643. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Kt. and others of the committee . . . 
for three troop horses . . . for Sir William Waller's Army which I charged 
upon the parishes and tithings in my half hundred as follows: 

On 9 December a party of Waller's men went towards Alton, beat 
up Lord Crawford's quarters, and then fell back on Farnham. On 

'ioSy.A.C, XV, 41. 

21 Ordinances, 333. 

22 Godwin, 71. 

23 Maiden, 236. 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 59 

12 December Waller marched against Crawford and defeated him at 
Alton.24 

(27) 3 January 1643/44. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Kt. and others of the committee to 
require me to send my warrants to the petty constables ... to levy the 
several sums of money hereunder specified for the buying of horses and 
furniture and for a month's pay for the soldiers to be paid to Mr. Launder at 
Guildford appointed by the committee to receive the same . . . 

The total amounted to /^80 and the authority for the warrant was 
probably the aforementioned Ordinance of 4 November 1643, ^^ 
creating the South Eastern Association: — 

. . . And further to enable them to maintain and pay the Forces 
of Horse and Foot, now raised or hereafter to be raised . . . there 
shall be rated, taxed and levied upon the said several and 
respective Counties and Places by the respective Committees of 
the same nominated by virtue of this Ordinance, so much Money 
as the Select and Standing Committee . . . shall hold fit and 
requisite . . . 

After Waller had defeated the Royalists at Alton, he had captured 
Arundel in January, and the money was no doubt required to pay 
his soldiers. 



(27) 3 January 1643/44. 

Another Warrant in the before mentioned warrant requiring me to send 
to the petty constable in my half hundred to summon all men between 18 
and 50 years of age to appear before the said Sir Richard Onslow Knight 
and others, which I did. 

The authority for this Warrant may liave been the Ordinance of 
10 August 1643:— 

Forasmuch as the true Protestant Religion, the Laws and 
Liberties of the Subject, and the Parliament, are in danger to be 
subverted, Idolatory and Tyranny like to be introduced, by the 
force and power of several Armies raised by pretence of the King's 
Authority, consisting of Papists, and other dangerous and ill 
affected persons of this Kingdom, and Irish Rebels, and of divers 
popish Soldiers, and others of foreign Kingdoms and nations, 
being not under the King's obedience, for the ruin and destruction 
of this Kingdom unless the same can be prevented b}^ a consider- 
able power of Forces to be suddenlj^ raised by both Houses of 
Parliament, being with God's blessing and assistance the most 
probable way to preserve this Kingdom, our Religion and 
Liberty . . . 

The Deputy Lieutenants were authorised to raise, levy and imprest 
soldiers, gunners and surgeons all of which were to have 'Imprest 

24 Godwin, 99. 

^5 Ordinances, 333. 



60 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

Money, Coat and Conduct Money, Wages and Entertainment . . 
Provided always that this Ordinance shall not extend to the Pressing 
of any person under the age of eighteen or above the age of fifty . . .' ; 
others exempted were: clergymen, scholars, students, any person 
rated at £5 Goods or £3 Lands, rank of Esquire and upwards, 
Members of Parliament and their servants. ^^ 

(16) 4 Januaiy 1643/44. 

A Warrant from Samuel Jones Colonel . . . for four flock beds with a 
bolster, one pair of sheets, one blanket and one coverlet to every bed . . . 
for the service of the Castle at Farnhani (whither they were to be carried) . . . 

(18) 19 January 1643/44. 

A Warrant from Major General Browne for three teams ... to be served 
in at Godalming . . . and one saddle horse . . . 

On 23 December 1643 Major General Browne had been appointed 
to command the white and yellow regiments sent to reinforce 
Waller's Army. ^7 On 26 March 1644 at a skirmish at West Meon 
Browne was in command of the foot in the vanguard, Waller 
bringing up the rear.-^ In Alresford, after the battle of Cheriton, the 
Parliamentarians fell upon the Royalists who had not escaped, 
'Then General Browne, who was ever known to be a valiant man, 
and must be looked upon as a special instrument in the work' led the 
cavalry in pursuit. -^ Clarendon wrote in November 1644 'The 
indomitable Browne still guarded Abingdon'3° and he referred to him 
as 'a citizen of London of good reputation, and a stout man.'^^ 
Other Royalists called him 'faggot-monger Browne' because, towards 
the end of 1644, London being unable to obtain sea coal from the 
North, he attempted to relieve the situation by shipping firewood 
down the Thames from Abingdon. ^^ It is to be hoped that Waller 
was on this occasion more satisfied with Browne and his troops than 
he was in the summer of 1644 when he reported that Browne's men 
from Essex and Herts were 'so mutinous and incommandable that 
there is no hope of their stay. Yesterday they were like to have 
killed the Major General, and they hurt him in the face. Such men 
are only fit for a gallows here and a hell hereafter. '^3 

(23) 3 February 1643/44. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight and Nicolas Stoughton 
Esqr. . . . for the several sums of money hereunder mentioned charged . . . 
upon the several places hereunder specified to be paid weekl}^ till I received 
further Order which was continued Eight weeks . . . 

The total weekly sum was £11.15.10, which for eight weeks gives a 
grand total of £94. 6. 8., and it was charged on parishes, not on 

26 Ordinances, 241. 

27 D.N.B. 

28 V.C.H. Hants, V, 342. 

29 V.C.H. Hants. V, 343. 

30 Gardiner, 519. 

31 Clarendon, IV, 549. 

32 Wedgwood. 404. 

33 Firth. 17. 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 61 

tithings; £5 a week was charged on the parish of Godalming. After 
setting out the amounts charged on the parishes the Warrant 
continues 

Whereof paid by me to Mr. Withers, Treasurer, ;^34.13s. for which I have 
an acquittance under his hand, for so much received by him for the parish 
of Godalming which I have mentioned before in my receipt, And gave 
return for £5. 7s. behind in Godalming parish of the same weekly tax which 
came in all for Godalming parish to ;^40 for two months. 
Presumably the following undated entry refers to the above- 
mentioned £34.13.0. 

(2) Undated. 

Received of several persons at several times towards the two months tax 
to Farnham Castle; for the Parish of Godalming the sum of Thirty-four 
pounds, thirteen shillings for which I have an acquittance from Mr. Withers 
Treasurer of the West Division of Surrey. 

(21) 26 February 1643/44. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight and others of the Committee 
for three troopers and three dragoons to be served in at Guildford . . . and 
also for the several sums of money out of the several parishes . . . 

The horses were charged in some cases on parishes and in other 
cases on tithings but the money, £29. 9. 7. a week for one month, 
two and a half times as much as the weekly amount charged by the 
Warrant of 3 February, was again charged, in the same proportion, 
on the parishes of Artington £5. 8. 4., Compton £4.11. 8, Godalming 
£12.10.0, Hambledon £1.12.31, Peper Harow £1.14.41 and Putten- 
ham £3.12.11. The Warrant of 3 February was for eight weeks to 
31 March, that of 26 February for four weeks to 26 March so that, 
unless Mellersh has given the wrong dates, amounts were payable 
under two warrants during March. The authority for the latter 
warrant was probably the Ordinance of 30 March 1644 which 
imposed for four months from 10 February 1643/44, continued for 
a further four months by the Ordinance of 15 June 1644, a weekly 
charge of £345. 13. 6 on Surrey, excluding Southwark and 'the lines of 
communication'; corresponding charges were Kent £930.16.0, 
Sussex and Southampton each £680.16.0.3+ The Ordinance of 
3 August 1643 had charged on Surrey with Southwark £500 weekly for 
eight weeks, some of the other counties being Devon £1,800, Kent, 
Suffolk and Norfolk each £1,250, Huntingdon £220, Nottinghamshire 
£187, Cheshire and Derbyshire each £175.35 

(3) Undated. 

Received for two weeks pay for Farnham Castle . . . 
The total was £32.17. 6., and it may also have been received at 
about this time. 

(22a) 5 March 1643/44. 

A Warrant from the said Sir Richard Onslow Knight for five quarters of 
oats to be served in at Guildford for the horses which were at Guildford 
under his command . . . 

34 Ordinances, 413. 

35 Ordinances, 225. 



62 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

(22a) 

Another warrant in that warrant for 5 quarters of oats for the several 
persons of the several places hereunder mentioned to provide themselves 
with able horses to be served in at Guildford at the time the oats were to be 
served in . . . 

(19) 12 March 1643/44. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight and Nicolas Stoughton 
Esqr. . . . for seven teams and a half . . . for Sir William Waller's use . . . 

A subsequent warrant suggests that a 'team' consisted of eight 
horses. The teams were required to carry gunpowder from Chihvorth 
to Famham. W^aller was massing troops near Famham, meaning to 
seek out the CavaUers.3^ 

(29) 13 March 1643/44. 

A Warrant from Sir William Waller Knight . . . for the furnishing of 
Captain Gooch with eight hackney horses for the conveying of his officers 
and servants to Portsmouth on their journey towards Poole . . . 

The detour to Portsmouth may have been to obtam reinforce- 
ments for Poole; on more than one occasion reinforcements were 
sent from Portsmouth to Lyme which was besieged by Prince 
Maurice for two months until 14 June when Essex, despite angry 
letters from Waller who wanted his help in the West, approached 
the town. 37 Poole had been held for the King by Anthony Ashley 
Cooper, subsequently the first Earl of Shaftesbur}-','''* but on 24 
February he presented himself at the Parliamentarian Headquarters 
at Hurst Castle and on 6 March he appeared before the Committee of 
Both Kingdoms in London when he swore allegiance to Parliament. 39 

(25) 14 March 1643/44. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight and others of the 
Committee ... to require me to send Warrants to the petty constables . . . 
to warn the several persons to send in the horses hereunder mentioned . . . 

On this occasion named individuals were called upon to supply 
five horses, presumablj' because they might have ignored a warrant 
issued by Mellersh. 

(22) 18 March 1643/44. 

A Warrant from the said Sir Richard Onslow Kt. and others of the 
Committee of the West Division of Surrey . . . for several sums of money 
hereunder specified being part of a Tax of ;^454 charged upon the whole 
West Division of Surrey; . . . also a Warrant in that Warrant for Twelve 
quarters of Oats to be served in at Guildford for the service of Sir William 
Waller's Army . . . 

The amount charged, on the parishes, was £59. 0.2. 

36 Godwin, 123. 

37 Wedgwood, 326. 

38 Wedgwood, 372. 

39 D.N.B. 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 63 

(17) 28 March 1644. 

A Warrant from Daniel Shudd, Porsiar General for Sir William Waller . . . 
for four able teams . . . 

On 29 March Waller defeated the Royalists at Alresford, an 
unquestioned and major triumph for Parliament, the first in the 
war/° 

(31) 30 March 1644. 

Another Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight and others of the 
Committee ... to require me to send my warrants to the petty constables . . . 
to warn the assessors of their respective rights to assess and appoint 
collectors to gather the several sums of money ... on the several parishes . . . 
to be paid weekly . . . 

The weekly amount was the same as charged for four weeks by the 
Warrant of 26 February 1643/44, £29. 9. 7, but it does not state for 
how many weeks it was to be paid. 

On 30 March the House of Commons ordered that three thousand 
foot, twelve hundred horses and five hundred dragoons should be 
raised and maintained for Waller; it also ordered that all monies 
levied on the estates of Papists and delinquents, and two-thirds of 
the monies paid to the County Treasurers should be devoted to the 
maintenance of Waller's army.''' 

(23) 1 April 1644. 

.•\nother warrant from the aforesaid Sir Richard Onslow Knight . . . for 
12 quarters of oats more to be served in at Guildford for the service of Sir 
William Waller's Army . . . 

(9) 4 April 1644. 

A Warrant from the said William Jones Commissary for twenty loads of 
hay and twenty quarters of oats . . . 

After the battle of Alresford on 29 March Waller marched through 
Hampshire towards Dorset, but his London regiments clamoured to 
go home and he was back at Farnham on 12 April as evidenced by 
the next warrant. 

(7) 15 April 1644. 

A Warrant from the aforesaid Mr. Cowlinge for Ten hundred of bread; 
five hundred of cheese, three hogsheads of beer; one live ox; one hundred of 
bacon and ten fat sheep . . . 

(28) 16 April 1644. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight . . . for one draught horse 
and a half to be served in at Guildford for my Lord General's Army . . . but 
none were served in. 

'My Lord General' could have been the Earl of Essex or the Earl 
of Manchester. On 6 April the Committee of Both Kingdoms had 
received orders to send all available forces to Waller 'as the King is 

■♦o Wedgwood, 304. 
-(I Godwin, 139. 



64 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

drawing all his forces against Sir William Waller, and is going in 
person with them.'^^ Essex, who had been guarding the northern 
approaches to London, ■^^ and Manchester, who had been watching 
Prince Rupert'** after he had relieved Newark in March, were ordered 
to help Waller and to join forces at Aylesbury on 19 April.+5 
However, Manchester went to Yorkshire and although Essex did not 
move to Aylesbury he sent Major Beare with five hundred horse to 
Waller*'^ and it is probable that this force was 'my Lord General's 
Army' for which the, presumably, team and a half of draught horse 
was required. On 20 April Waller's forces in and near Famham 
amounted to ten thousand men/^ 

(11a) 24 April 1644. 

A Warrant from the said William Jones Commissary for 4 dozen of Sacks 
to be served in at Guildford for Sir William Waller's use . . . 

These may have been required for moving provisions from a large 
convoy, destined for Baling House, which Waller had captured/^ 

(18) 8 May 1644. 

A Warrant from Henry Floyd, Commissary to the draught of Sir William 
Waller's Army for three teams of horse . . . 

An officer called the 'Commissary-general of victuals' was the 
head of the commissariat ; the 'Commissary to the draught' may have 
been an officer under the Waggon-master-general who was in charge 
of the train and baggage,*^ but see Index of Names. 

(12) 11 May 1644. 

Another Warrant from the before mentioned William Jones Commissary, 
for Ten loads of hay and fifteen quarters of oats . . . 

charged on the town of Godalming, the parish of Hambledon and 
the tithings of Arlington, Laboume and Tuesley. 

The reason why I charged these places . . . with such great quantities of 
hay and oats . . . was because the other places in my half hundred . . . were 
then full of soldiers and these places upon whom the tax was laid had 
none . . . 

'The places full of soldiers' were therefore Binscombe, Compton, 
Eashing, Famcombe, Hurtmore, Peper Harow, Puttenham and 
Shackleford. This is the only occasion on which billeting is mentioned 
in the book. The usual practice was that tickets were given to 
householders specifying the number of soldiers quartered, the time 
they were maintained, and the amounts due calculated at a fixed 
rate, a corresponding sum being deducted from the soldiers' pay, the 

42 Godwin, 142. 

43 Wedgwood, 299. 

44 D.N.B. 

45 Gardiner, 398. 

46 Godwin, 144. 

47 Godwin, 144. 

48 Godwin, 144. 

49 Firth. 62. 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 65 

tickets being redeemed at a later date. 5° It was written by one of the 
London Auxiliaries, who had joined Waller's Army on 20 May, to 
harass Basing House. 

We lay at Basingstoke three nights and had indifferent good 
quarter for our money, but the inhabitants were fearful they 
should be ill dealt withall after our departure for entertaining us ; 
they pay ;^40 per week towards the maintenance of the house 
(Basing), and that morning before we came they had payed that 
week's money. ^^ 

As regards the £40 per week paid by the Basingstoke people, the 
above quotation reads as though it was paid to the defenders, not 
the besiegers, of Basing House; the Royalists did occasionally get 
out to collect money and supplies, and places near Basing had 
demands from both sides. 5^ The charge made by the next warrant 
on the Hundred of Godalming was undoubtedly for the besiegers. 
Waller's army had been posted in detachments extending from 
Farnham to Chichester, but it was now being concentrated in the 
Famham district'^ preparatory to a campaign, with Essex, in the 
Thames Valley. 5* At the same time an attempt was being made to 
starve out the Basing House garrison, and strong bodies of troops 
quartered in the neighbourhood patrolled the adjacent country to 
prevent the taking in of provisions. 5s 

(2) Undated. 

Received of several persons at several times for and towards the 
maintenance of the soldiers at Basing . . . the sum of ;^105.13.10. 

(7) 15 May 1644. 

A Warrant from the said Mr. Cowlinge for four lumdred dozen of bread . . . 
The which I charged upon the town of Godalming l)ecause he promised 
pajonent . . . 

(29) 19 May 1644. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight . . . for two draught horses 
and a half and harness for them to be brought to Guildford for the service 
of Sir William Waller ... or so many, [? some money] — £1 for each horse . . . 
The money if there were any paid Mr. Withers Treasurer of the West 
Division of Surrey received the same. 

(8) ? 20 May 1644. 

A Warrant from Sir William Waller for forty pounds worth of bread . . . 
the which I charged upon the town of Godalming because he promised 
payment in his warrant . . . 

50 Firth, 216. 

51 Godwin, 148. 

52 Godwin, 104. 

53 Godwin, 145. 

54 Wedgwood, 320. Maiden, 237. 

55 Basingstoke, 418. 



66 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

(8) ? 20 May 1644. 

A Warrant from William Jones Commissary to the right honoble. Sir 
William Waller, Knight, for fifteen loads of hay and fifteen quarters of 
oats . . . 

The first of the preceding two warrants is dated 20 May 1640, and 
the second is undated ; it has been assumed that the correct year is 
1644 and that both were issued on the same date. 

(30) 1 June 1644. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight and George Farewell 
Esqr. . . . for the sum of Six pounds Sixteen shillings and Eleven pence 
towards the loss of Four hundred dozen bread which should have been 
carried to Sir William Waller's Army and by reason of the Army's advancing 
could not be carried in accordingly for which loss of bread I sent out for 
Three pounds and Nineteen shillings and my partner Richard Smith of 
Mousell for the rest . . . [the amounts totalling ;^3.19.0. charged on the 
tithings are then set out] ... Of which said several sums abovementioned I 
only received 16s. whereof I have paid to the Baker 8s. and the residue 
being 8s. more I keep till I receive Order from Sir Richard Onslow for 
payment thereof and not one farthing more have I received nor any man 
to my use nor by my appointment. 

'My partner Richard Smith of Mousell,' had charge of the southern 
half of the hundred. Waller had marched from Famham in the 
direction of Wantage on 18 May.s^ to co-operate witli the Earl of 
Essex, and his army did not return to Surrey for some weeks. 

(1) 14 June 1644. 

Received for and towards the relief of sick and maimed soldiers by virtue 
of an Ordinance of this present Parliament dated the first of November 1643 
as also by virtue of a warrant from Edmond Jordan Esq., High Sheriff of 
the County of Surrey to me directed the 14th June 1644 the sum of Six 
pounds fifteen shillings of the several places hereinafter mentioned . . . for 
which ... I have an acquittance from Mr. Nathaniel Weyborne and Mark 
Mould, gent., appointed to receive the same. 

The Ordinance of 31 October 1643 (not 1 November) provided for 
the payment for a period of six months from 1 November 1643 of not 
more than four shillings a week to disabled soldiers and widows and 
children of soldiers who had been killed. Fifteen Counties and 
London had to contribute, Surrey and Southwark £145, London and 
Westminster £1,200, Essex, Kent, Norfolk and Suffolk each £300, 
Middlesex £125, Bucks, Cambridge and Hertford each £120.57 

(33) 15 June 1644. 

A Warrant from the aforesaid Sir Richard Onslow Kt. and George 
Farewell Esq. . . . for me to press carts for one John Foster settler to his 
Regiment daily as often as tlie said John Foster had occasion which I did 
accordingly. 

Onslow was in command of the Surrey Red-coats, five companies 
strong, at Basing House and his officers included Lt.-Col. Jordan, 
High Sheriff of Surrey (who issued the warrant of 14 June) and 

56 Godwin, 146. 

57 Ordinances, 328. 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 67 

Captain Westbrook of Godalming (who had been charged with one 
horse jointly with Richard Stockden by the warrant of 18 September 
1643). 58 Although the main object was to beleaguer Basing House 
there was considerable activity during this period in which Col. 
Jones, the governor of Farnham Castle, was prominent; not only 
did they capture convoys of provisions for Basing, but they also 
sought (not always successfully) to prevent the Royalists from 
sallying forth to capture cloth and other goods being sent from 
Wiltshire and the West to London, and from obtaining money and 
provisions from the neighbourhood; the Parliamentarians had been 
reinforced and further attempts were made to capture the House, 
the Royalists frequently attacking the besiegers; on 21 June two of 
the Surrey Red-coats were captured, and another was killed. 59 

(28) 10 July 1644. 

Another warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight . . . requiring me to 
provide teams for . . . Setlers of his regiment at Basing, as often as they 
pleased the said setlers paying 12s. for every journey which I did. 

On 24 June, further reinforcements having arrived, the siege of 
Basing House had begun in grim earnest.^" On 9 July Onslow's 
Surrey Red-coats had been increased by four more companies. On 
12 July the Roj^alists refused a demand to surrender. 

(5) 30 August 1644. 

A Warrant from Mr. Nicolas Cowlinge Proviand Master General to Sir 
William Waller . . . for 50 dozen bread, two hundred weight of cheese ten 
fat sheep five hogsheads of beer one dozen of poultry . . . 

Waller, who had left Farnham towards the end of May, had 
returned after a strenous and unsatisfactory campaign with frequent 
disputes between himself, Essex and Manchester, each of whom had 
independent armies and blamed each other when things went wrong. 
On 12 July Waller had written to the Committee of Both Kingdoms 
'Till you have an army merely your own that you may command, it 
is in a manner impossible to do anything of importance.'^* The 
remnants of Waller's army, only fourteen hundred men, which 
returned to Farnham were mutinous, ragged and ill equipped, and 
Waller had only three weeks' pay for them.^^ On 19 August Waller 
had been ordered to march westward forthwith to rescue the Earl of 
Essex, and he replied on 1 September that he would be willing to do 
so on receipt of £500 and horses for his mounted infantry ;''3 on the 
same day he had received at Farnham a reinforcement of about 
twelve hundred infantry. ^^ 

58 Godwin, 150. 

59 Godwin, 154. 

60 Godwin, 155. 

61 Wedgwood, 331. 

62 Maiden, 238. 

63 Godwin, 166. 

64 Godwin, 171. 



68 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

(10) 2 September 1644. 

A Warrant from the said William Jones Commissary for ten loads of hay 
and ten quarters of oats . . . 

(17) 3 September 1644. 

A Warrant from Richard Whippey Deputy Commissary to the Draughts 
of Artillery in Sir William Waller's Army . . . for five teams . . . 

Waller was still trying to capture Basing House, when on 7 
September orders were issued to Waller to advance towards 
Dorchester, so as to check the advance of the King's army, and he 
reached Blandford on 20 September. ^5 The absence of Waller 
enabled Colonel Gage to bring from Oxford to Basing House, on 
1 1 September, some much-needed ammunition ; he, with the help of 
the defenders, then utterly disrupted the besieging force and 
captured some artillery, including 'a goodly-demi-cannon' (a 40- 
pounder) from Onslow's works. He then took possession of 
Basingstoke against small resistance; fortunately for him it was 
market day and for a whole day he sent supplies from that town to 
Basing House ;^^ he then returned to Oxford and shortly afterwards 
the siege, but without any bombardment, assumed the character of 
a blockade. 

(20) 29 September 1644. 

A Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight . . . for two teams and a half 
to be served in at Farnham . . . The mare was served in by Widow 
Matchwicke of Eashing and lost; a horse served in by John Keene of 
Hashing and lost ; two horses served in by the inhabitants of Hambledon and 
lost, for the other two teams I do not know whether any were served in or 
not. 

On 26 September Parliament had thanked Onslow for raising men 
for the defence of Surrey and the siege of Basing House, the county 
being ordered to continue to maintain his forces ; however, Mellersh 
was obviously having difficulty in carrying out his orders. 

(13) 2 October 1644. (Plate VII.) 

A Warrant from Jeremy Barnes Lieutenant Colonel to Colonel Jones . . . 
for Thirty eight hundred and forty pounds of Pork; Twenty-four bullocks; 
four hundred and a half and thirty pounds of butter; four hundred and a 
half and thirty pounds of cheese ; one quarter of peas ; and ten quarters of 
wheat . . . 

The King had advanced from Devon towards Wadler who was 
forced to retreat from Shaftesbury on 8 October ;^7 on 15 October 
the King entered Salisbury, and Waller, who could not challenge 
him without the help of Manchester and Essex, retreated to Andover. 
It would seem that the officers at Farnham Castle had been warned 
that there would be a concentration of Parliamentarian troops near 
Farnham and that it was necessary to build up supplies. 

65 Godwin, 171. 

66 Godwin, 179. 

67 Gardiner, 496. 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 69 

It is to be observed that this warrant was issued by Jeremy 
Barnes, Lieutenant Colonel to Colonel Samuel Jones, the Governor 
of Famham Castle. Colonel Jones was a cantankerous person, but 
the job of Governor of the Castle during this unorganised stage of the 
war would have made even an archangel somewhat peevish! In 
November 1643 he had rashly issued a warrant to the tenants of the 
Marquis of Winchester, of Basing House, and signed it 'Samuel 
Jones, Collon,' upon which a Royalist journalist wrote 'yes. Master 
Jones, wee'l call you Master Colonel when you know how to spell 
the word.'^^ He was now in London because the Committee for 
Surrey had vehemently accused him, and a Committee of the House 
of Commons had been appointed to settle the controversy.*^ In 
March 1645 he complained that his pay was in arrear and that he was 
being unfairly treated ; he asked that a successor might be appointed, 
but he would not be superseded by his own Lieutenant Colonel, 
Jeremy Bames,7° the candidate of the Committee for Surrey; the 
House of Commons appointed a committee to induce him to resign 
honourably, and on 5 April 1645 the Committee of Both Kingdoms 
appointed Mr. John Fielder, not Jeremy Barnes, as his successor. 7' 

(5a) 21 October 1644. 

A Warrant from the aforesaid Mr. Cowlinge for one hundred dozen of 
bread . . . 

(11) 21 October 1644. 

Another Warrant from the said William Jones Commissary for ten loads 
of hay and twenty quarters of oats . . . 

Waller had escaped from Andover to Basing on 20 October and 
joined Manchester who had arrived on 17 October, and Essex who 
got there on 21 October, the total forces amounting to about 
nineteen thousand men.^^ A concerted attack on Basing House, 
which had been surrounded for over four months, was beaten off by 
the defenders. 73 Then the three more or less independent armies had 
to go off after the King, and fought the second battle of Newbury on 
27 October,74 aiter which Waller returned to Basing. 

(28) 16 November 1644. 

Another Warrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight and Nicolas 
Stoughton Esqr. to require me to send forth my warrants to the petty 
Constables ... to collect and gather within their several liberties the several 
sums of money lost by bread to be served in to Sir William Waller's Army 
and by reason of the Army's advancing could not be carried in accordingly . . . 



68 Godwin, 104. 

69 Godwin, 183. 

70 Godwin, 207. 

71 Godwin, 209. 

72 Gardiner, 498. 

73 Wedgwood, 374. 

74 Gardiner, 498. 



70 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

The warrant does not state the amount to be collected. 
Presumably it refers to the bread charged by the warrant of 21 
October. 

Clarendon has recorded that the King's 

heart was set upon the relief of Basing, which was now again 
distressed; the enemy having, as is said before, begirt it closely, 
from the time that Gage relieved it [on 11 September]. He had a 
great mind to do it with his whole army, that thereby he might 
draw the enemy to a battle : but upon full debate it was concluded 
that the safest way would be to do it by a strong party . . . the 
enemy marched from Newbury to Basing which they thought 
would upon the sight of their whole army, presently have yielded ; 
but finding the marquis [of Winchester] still obstinate to defend 
it, they were weary of the winter war and so retired all their force 
from thence the very day before Gage came.^s 

The defenders of Basing House were no doubt distressed, but the 
Parliamentarian army was no better off. On the way back from 
Newbury to Basing most of Manchester's starving men ran away to 
Reading, where there was food.^^ Waller arrived at Basing and 
endeavoured to resume the attack but his men had been in constant 
service for over a year, winter was now upon them, and their pay 
was in arrears ;''" his army had dwindled to seven hundred. 
Therefore, after twenty-four weeks of siege during which the 
besiegers are believed to have lost about a thousand men, on 15 
November 1644 Waller withdrew from Basing^*^ and 'advanced' to 
Odiham. London had expected Basing House to fall and Lady 
Onslow had written that Parliament had given it to her husband 
and 'hoped the world would then see them in a better condition' i^^ 
if Waller had made one more, and a successful, attempt, this 
magnificent building, surpassed only by roj-al palaces, would have 
been saved for posterity, instead of being utterly destroyed by 
Cromwell in October 1645. 

(4) Undated. 

Received for the use of Sir William Waller's Army the several sums of 
money hereunder written ... by virtue of a Warrant from Mr. Covvlinge 
Proviand Master General . . . 

There is nothing to indicate the date of this document. ^15 was 
received. 

(6) 18 November 1644. 

A Warrant from the said Mr. Cowlinge . . . for 1 hundred dozen of bread; 
five hundred weight of cheese; eight quarters of beef. 

One half was charged on Mellersh's half hundred, 'My partner 
Richard Smith of Mousell was charged with the other half.' 

75 Clarendon, IV, 593. 

76 Gardiner, 518. 

77 Wedg\vood. 383 

78 Basingstoke, 418. 

79 Godwin, 194. 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 71 

(16) 18 November 1644. 

A Warrant from Henry Jarman Waggon Master General to Sir William 
Waller Knight for five teams . . . 

The items charged by both the foregoing warrants were to help 
Waller on his way to the West. He did not stay for long at Odiham 
because seven thousand Royal horse and dragoons arrived there 
soon afterwards; Colonel Jones asked for, and obtained, re- 
inforcements from Waller. ^° 



(14) 29 November 1644. 

A Warrant from Samuel Jones, Colin., for a team and a half and a cart 
till I had gone through my half hundred to be at Farnham Castle daily . . . 
Of which said teams I never received neither horse nor cart nor any man 
for me but I received 5s. of Mr. Stiles and others of Hashing which I repaid 
again to Walter How Tithingman of Hashing. It was to hire a cart at 
Famham for that tithing. 

Perhaps this was the last straw! Mellersh ceased to be High 
Constable within the next few weeks possibly because he did not get 
a horse or cart, or because the Parliamentarian authorities felt that 
he had not got his heart in the job, or it may have been because of 
ill-health— he died in 1650. 



(2) 12 December 1644. 

Received for and towards the relief of the poor distressed clergie of 
Ireland . . . the sum of £2.. 4s. 8d. 

The date should perhaps be 12 December 1643 because the only 
relevant Ordinance is that of 18 September 1643: — 

Whereas it appeareth . . . that the distressed Clergy of the 
Kingdom of Ireland, were at the beginning of that Rebellion 
there, dispoiled of there [sic] Personal Estates, and have been 
ever since deprived of their respective livings, by the Barbarous 
Rebells, and are now ready to perish, with their wives and 
children, for want of present livelyhood. The Lords and Commons 
now Assembled in Parliament, having taken the same into their 
charitable considerations, do think fit that there shall be a 
collection made in, and throughout the Cities of London and 
Westminster, and the several Counties of Middlesex, Essex, Kent, 
Surrey and Hertford for their relief . . . Provided always that this 
Ordinance shall not be put in execution touching any such 
Collections as aforesaid longer than or from or after the thirtieth 
day of November next.^^ 



80 Godwin, 197. 

81 Ordinances, 285. 



72 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

(26) 4 January 1644/45. 

A Waxrant from Sir Richard Onslow Knight and others of the 
committee . . . for so many dragoon horses as are hereunder specified with a 
saddle and bridle . . . upon the several parishes hereunder mentioned . . . 

Upon the parish of Godalming 1 

Upon the parishes of Puttenham and 

Artington 1 

Upon the parish of Compton joined with 

Haselmere 1 

It is not clear why Haselmere should have been charged with hah 
a horse; Haselmere was not in Mellersh's half hundred, and it is 
unlikely that it was intended to be Hurtmore, because Hurtmore was 
in the parish of Godalming.^- After Waller had left Basing, Onslow 
had retired to Famham.^3 

(33) (Signed) 

Phillipp Mellersh. 
late one of the high Constables of the hundred of Godalming. 

(33 A). 

April 17th 1645 the within named Phillipp Mellersh delivered this Account 
upon oath 

(Signed) Matthew Brend [or Brand] 
Robert Holman 
,, Hugh Jones 

,, John Webster 



A photo copy of Philip Mellersh's Book is available for reference in 
the Society's Library at Castle Arch, Guildford. 



82 Brayley, V, 199. 

83 Sy.^.C. XXXVI, 62. 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 73 

SOURCES 

Basingstoke =F. J. Baigent and J. E. Millard, Basingstoke, 1889. 

Brayley=E. W. Brayley, History of Surrey, 1840-46. 

Clandon Park= Pamela, Countess of Onslow, Guide Book. 

Clarendon = Lord Clarendon, History of the Rebellion, Oxford 1776. 

D.'N.B.— Dictionary of National Biography. 

Firth=C. H. Firth, Cromwell's Army, 3rd Edn., University Paper- 
backs 1962. 

Gardiner=S. R. Gardiner, History of the Great Civil War, 1886, 
Vol. I. 

Godwin=G. N. Godwin, The Civil War in Hampshire, 1882. 

Malden=H. E. Maiden, History of Surrey, 1900. 

Ordinances =ylds and Ordinances, Vol. I, H.M.S.O., Firth and Rait, 
1911. 

V.C.H., ^dinis— Victoria History of the Counties of England, 
Hampshire. 

V.C.H., Surrey = Ftcton'a History of the Counties of England, 
Surrey. 

Wedgwood=C. V. Wedgwood, The King's War, 1958. 



74 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

A BOOKE OF MY ACCOMPTES 
SUMMARY OF CHARGES 





1 
1 


Total 


1 

< 


=3 
m 

4) 

4.1 

4.1 

n 
O 


1 

a, 

i 


Horses 












Dragoon and Trooper 


5 


22 


H 


— 


H 


Hackney, Harness and Saddle . 


5 


33 


5 


— 


4 


Teams and Draught 


12 


471 


3| 


— 


4 


Money 












Specific Objects and Weekly 












Amounts . . . . 


14 


£676 


£^ 


£3 


£78 


Provisions and Fodder 












Bacon (Pounds) . 


2 


2,020 


— 


— 


— 


Beef (Quarters) 


1 


4 


h 


— 


^ 


Beefer (Half) 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Beer (Hogsheads) 


3 


11 


-— 


h 


— 


Bread (Dozens) . 


8 


3,600 


171 


6 


17 


BuUocks (Fat) 


1 


24 


4 


— 


4 


Butter (Pounds) . 


2 


540 




— 


— 


Cheese (Hundredweights) 


5 


1,735 


i 


^ 


i 


Hay (Loads) 


5 


65 


m 


h 


61 


Mutton 


1 


10 


— 


— 


— 


Oats (Bushels) . 


9 


914 


72 


6 


79 


Ox (Live) 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— . 


Peas (Quarters) 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


Pork (Pounds) . 


1 


3,840 


— 


500 


800 


Poultry 


1 


12 


— 


— 


4 


Sheep .... 


2 


20 


2 


— 


H 


Wheat (Quarters) 


1 


10 




— 


— 


Sundry 












Feather Beds 


1 


3 


— 


— 


1 


Flock Beds 


3 


18 


— 


-- 


1 


Sacks .... 


1 


48 


— 


— 






Note : Farncombe includes Binscombe and Hurtmore. Godalming generally includes 
Catteshall and sometimes other tithings. 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

OF PHILLIPP MELLERSH 
ON TITHINGS 



75 



0) o 



i 


1 


6 


— 


2 


10 


3i 


3^ 


6 



3i 



— 3 

3 21 



U 



SI 



41 

^2 



£9 £9 £244 £29 £5 £30 £63 £6 £3 £108 



1 



850 


— 


50 890 


130 


100 


3 3 

To To 


i 


-3_ .3_ 

10 10 


— 


— 



— - 1 _ 11 11 _ _ 1 6 
17| 14 29 33 13 11 17 19i 5i 3.400 

6— 10 ___ ___ _ 

— — — 100 - 330 — — — 110 
i I i 4801 1 1 11 I ^1,2501 

51 2| 12^ 5 5f 41 41 41 2i 1 

— — _- _ _ „ ^ _„ 10 
79 78 138 84 88 34 63 60 53 80 

_ 1 _____ ____ 

— — 1,000 _ _ _ 1,500 _ 40 — 
_ 8 — ___ _„_ ^ 

4— ------ -lOJ 

— 10 — ___ ___ _ 



1 — 
1 — 



7 
48 



76 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

APPENDIX 

INDEX OF NAMES IN THE BOOK OF PHILIP MELLERSH 

Note: The figures in brackets refer to the first, or only, page on which 
the name is mentioned ; the information in brackets has been 
obtained from other sources. 

Arnold, Henr^', Tithingman of Hambledon. (4) 

Balchjm, Henr^% Tithingman of Hashing. (4) 

Barnes, Jeremy, Lieutenant Colonel to Colonel Jones. (13) (See 
comment on Warrant of 2 October 1644.) 

Billinghurst, George, Tithingman of Puttenham. (4) 

Billinghurst, William, of Shackleford. (24) 

Bowler, Edward, Setler of Sir Richard Onslow's Regiment. (28) 
(Setler is a corruption of the word Sutler, a camp-follower 
who sold provisions.) 

Bowler, Henry, Setler of Sir Richard Onslow's Regiment. (28) 

Brand (or Brend), Matthew. (33a) (Baronet. The first named 
member of the Committee to whom PhiHp Mellersh 
delivered his account. A member of the Surrey 
Committees for Sequestrating Delinquents' Estates, for 
Levying Money, for the Defence of Surrey, for Raising 
Forces for Waller, for the Relief of the British Army in 
Ireland, for Raising and Maintaining Forces and for the 
Monthly Assessment for the Scottish Army under the 
Earl of Leven.) 

Bridger, George, of Godalming. (32) 

Browne, Major General. (18) (See comment on Warrant of 19 
January 1643/44.) 

Carpenter, John, Tithingman of Tuesley. (4) 

Champion, John, Tithingman of Binscombe. (4) 

Chittie, George, of Hurtmore. (24) 

Coldham, Mr., of Compton. (25, etc.) (Of Down Place.) 

Collyn, John, Tithingman of Laboume. (4) 

Cowlinge, Nicolas, Proviand Master General. (4 etc.) (The title 
Proviand, or Proviant, was imported from Germany in 
the early part of the century and the appointment was 
equivalent to Commissary General of Victuals, which 
Cowlinge himself held in the New Model Army in 
succession to Edward Orpin ; he provided victuals, com, 
flesh, bread and beer, and had under him a lieutenant, a 
secretary, a clerk, a smith, a waggon-master and a 
waggon-maker.) 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 77 

Ellyott. Sir William. Kt., of Godalming. (32) (Of Busbridge Hall; he 
was a member of the same Committees as Sir Matthew 
Brand.) 

Entiknap, Thomas, of Hashing. (24) 

Farewell, George, (30, etc.) (He was a member of the same 
Committees as Sir Matthew Brand.) 

Flo3^d, Henry, Commissary to the Draught. (18) (The appointment 
was probably that of Commissary of the Artillery 
Draught Horse, but in a petition before the Committee 
of Both Kingdoms, 28 June 1644, Floyd describes 
himself as 'Commissary of Sir William Waller's 
Carriages.') 

Foster, John, Setler to Sir Richard Onslow's Regiment. (33) 

Gooch, Captain (29) (An Anthony Gooch lived at Hurtmore.) 

Hammond, John, of Binscombe. (24) (A cousin of Philip Mellersh's 
first wife.) 

Hammond, Richard, Tithingman of Farncombe. (4) 

Hollis, Mr., of Peper Harow. (25) 

HoUis, Denzill, Esq., of Peper Harow. (32) (Afterwards Lord Holies; 
bought Peper Harow in 1655.) 

Holman, Robert, (33a) (One of the Committee to whom Phihp 
Mellersh delivered his account ; member of several of the 
same Committees as Sir Matthew Brand.) 

How, Walter, Tithingman of Eashing. (14) 

Hull, Thomas, Gent., of Godalming. (24, etc.) (Of Westbrook.) 

Hurte, John, of Puttenham. (22a) 

Jarman, Henry, Waggon Master General. (16) (He was in charge of 
the Arniy's transport.) 

Jones, Hugh. (33a) (One of the Committee to whom Philip Mellersh 
delivered his Account.) 

Jones, Samuel, Colonel. (14, etc.) (Member of the Surrey Committee 
for the Defence of Surrey and for the Relief of the 
British Army in Ireland; see comment on Warrant of 
2 October 1644.) 

Jones, William, Commissary to Sir W. Waller. (8, etc.) (He was 
probably the same man as an officer named Jones who 
became Commissary General of Horse Provisions in 
succession to Captain Cook who was killed at the battle 
of Naseby, and his duties in Waller's Army are likely to 
have been of the same nature.) 

Jordan, Edmond, High Sheriff of Surrey. (1) (Member of the Surrey 
Committee for Levying Money, for the Defence of Surrey, 
for Raising Forces for Waller and for the Relief of the 
British Army in Ireland.) 



78 THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 

Keene, John, of Eashing. (20) 

Kempsall, Mr., of Compton (32) (John Kempsall of Eastbury Manor 
died 12.1.1658/9.) 

Launder, Mr., of Guildford. (2, etc.) (Philip Mellersh's first wife was a 
Launder.) 

Loike, John, Tithingman of Peper Harow. (4) 

Matchwicke, Widow, of Eashing. (20) 

Matchwicke, Henry, of Godalming. (32) (A cousin of Phihp Mellersh's 
first wife.) 

Merch, John, Tithingman of Shackleford. (4) 

More, Edward, Mr., of Hurtmore. (25) 

More, Edward, Esq., of Godalming. (32) 

More, Sir Poynings, Baronet, of Artington. (25, etc.) (Of Loseley; 
created Baronet in 1642; bom 13.2.1605/6 died 
11.4.1649; he became a member of Committees in 1645 
for putting Surrey into a posture of defence, and in 1647 
for raising money for the Army of Sir Thomas Fairfax.) 

Mould, Mark. (1) 

Onslow, Sir Richard, Kt. (16, etc.) (Knighted in 1624; a Sequest- 
rator of Royalist estates and a member of the same 
Committees as Sir Matthew Brand.) 

Parkhurst, Sir Robert, Knight. (25, etc.) (Son of Sir Robert, Lord 
Mayor of London; member of the same Committees as 
Sir Matthew Brand with the exception of that for the 
Relief of the Army in Ireland.) 

Perrior, Joshua, of Godalming. (32) 

Quennell, Captain, of Compton (32) (Of Field Place. Made a 'loan' 
of £10 to Charles L See comment on Warrant of 18 
September 1643.) 

Ranee, Richard, Constable of Artington. (4) 

Rogers, Richard, Tithingman of Hurtmore. (4) 

Shudd, Daniel, Porsiar General. (17) (Mousehill, Witley, was owned 
by the Shudd family. The word Porsiar is probably a 
corruption of Purser, in which event Shudd was 
Treasurer and in charge of the money chest of Waller's 
Army.) 

Smith, John, of Peper Harow. (32) (Henry Smith of Peper Harow 
bought the manor of Piccard in 1585.) 

Smith, John, of Godalming. (32) 

Smith, Richard, of Mousell, 'my partner.' (6, etc.) (In charge of the 
southern half of the hundred of Godalming.) 

Smith, William, Tithingman of Compton. (4) 
Smith, William, of Peper Harow. (32) 



THE CIVIL WAR IN THE HUNDRED OF GODALMING 79 

Stiles, Mr., of Eashing. (14) 

Stockden, Richard, of Godalming. (24, etc.) 

Stoughton, Nicolas. (16, etc.) (His grandfather bought Stoke Manor 
in 1587. Nicolas of the manor of Stoughton was M.P. for 
Guildford in the last Parliament of James I and also in 
the Long Parliament. Made a 'loan' of {20 to Charles I. 
Member of the same Committees as Sir Matthew Brand.) 

Temple, Thomas. (2) 

Toft, Abraham, Constable of Godalming. (4) 

WaUer, Sir WiUiam. (8) 

Webster, John. (33a) (One of the Committee to whom Philip 
Mellersh delivered his Account.) 

Weight, Mr., of Artington. (22a) (? Wight, q.v.) 

Westbrook, John, of Godalming. (32) (Westbrooks held the manor 
of Roke, Witley.) 

Weybome, Nathaniel. (1) 

Whetham, Nath., an officer of Farnham Castle. (15) (In 1649 he 
became the contractor for the sale of lands, etc., of 
Deans and Chapters.) 

Whippey, Richard, Deputy Commissary to the Draughts of Artillery. 
(17) (See note re Henry Floyd.) 

Wight, Mr., of Artington. (32) (The Wights held Braboeuf Manor 
from 1559 until 1914.) 

Withers, Richard, Treasurer of the West Division of Surrey. (3, etc.) 

Wyott, Henry, Gent., of Godalming. (32) (There were Wyat's at 
Shackleford and Puttenham.) 

Yonge, William. (2) 



HATCHFORD PARK AND CHURCH 

BY 

R. R. LANGHAM-CARTER 

SOUTH-WEST from Cobham Plough Lane leads past fields and 
farms and through woodland to the hamlet of Hatchford. The 
nearest bus is two miles away and the nearest railway station 
is further. Though hardly more than twenty miles from London, 
Hatchford is still small and agricultural and unspoilt. The oldest 
maps in Guildford Museum do not show it, for there was then 
nothing at all to show. Even more recent maps sometimes ignore it. 
It is Hatch Fold in Rocque's Map of Surrey of 1765 and Hatchfold 
in the Ordnance Survey map of 1816. It was at first simply a country 
house in Cobham parish with not even a hamlet near it; though 
some of the neighbouring farms were on Hatchford land and when 
the estate was sold in 1906 it amounted to 152 acres, including its 
farms and the hamlet that had grown up near the big house. 

In his Roads in Great Britain of 1799 Daniel Paterson mentions 
the chief houses on or near his roads and includes Hatchford, though 
he is out of date on the owner's name. The next owner is correctly 
shown in John Gary's Great Roads of 1806. Fifty years later the 
Guildford Directory was giving local landowners' names and 
addresses in full but could describe Lord Ellesmere as residing 
merely in 'Cobham,' though in a later issue it changes to the 
incorrect address of 'Hatchford, Cobham.' Up to the present day 
many Surrey books ignore Hatchford and there is no local guide. 
Hatchford has never formed an independent parish; it has been a 
chapelry, it has been in Cobham and it is now in Ockham. Early 
entries of parents' abodes in the register of baptisms show them as 
in 'Hatchford (in Cobham)' or 'Hatchford (in Ockham)' or even 
'Hatchford (in Hersham).' But, though Hatchford is small and 
little known, both house and church are of some interest. 

In Surrey Place Names G. S. Davis mentions it as possibly the 
house of one William at Hacche. But 'Hatch' merely means a gate 
and, as Davis goes on to say, 'as a rule the word occurs in Surrey 
local names in cases which suggest a gate or a roadway through a 
wood as the origin of the name.' We, at any rate, need not go back 
further than 1774 when a Mr. Wilson sold the property to one Lewis 
Smith, who built a new and larger house, none of which now 
survives. It stood on sandy heath land and had (as the present 
house has) fine views, especially south-westwards to the North 
Downs. 

Of the next owners the East India nabob Andrew Ramsey Karr, 
who had been Chief at Surat and Governor of Bombay and died at 
Hatchford in 1799, deserves a mention, if only for his charming 
monument by Nollekens in Cobham church. And so does Miss 
Isabella Saltonstall who endowed the Cobham living and was noted 

80 



HATCHFORD PARK AND CHURCH 81 

for other local charities, dying at Hatchford in 1829. Hatchford's 
best period began when it was bought by Lord Francis Egerton v/ho 
later became the Earl of Ellesmere. He had rented Oatlands Park 
near Weybridge from 1830 to 1840 and came to Hatchford soon after. 
He pulled down most of Smith's construction and greatly altered the 
remainder which he retained as the central portion of a new house. 
A conservatory, 65 feet long and 22 feet broad and 25 feet high, 
adjoined the house, and an orangery, 65 feet by 25 by 30, was built 
onto the east wing. At about this time many of the big land-owners 
were skilful amateur architects who designed their own country 
houses and also cottages and farm buildings on their estates and 
there were at least three such in close proximity to Hatchford, the 
most conspicuous of them being Lord Lovelace, much of whose work 
is still to be seen around Ockham and East Horsley. Ellesmere was 
no mean artist and may have dabbled in architecture too. A very 
early photograph, which Miss Christian Egerton presented to the 
present occupants of Hatchford Park, shows it to have been a 
handsome square white building with a simple exterior that avoided 
the over-omateness which spoilt Charles Buxton's new house at 
neighbouring Foxwarren and much of Lovelace's work at East 
Horsley. The Ellesmeres were ardent believers in education and 
built a village school for the children on their estate: this was 
destroyed only a short time ago, but a little to the west of the church 
their three alms-house cottages still form a picturesque mid- 
Victorian group. Their house has disappeared in its turn, along with 
its stables and all its subsidiary buildings. But its gardens were 
quite outstanding and they have to some extent survived. As late as 
1843 the surroundings to the house were mainly a waste land 
covered with little but heath bushes. But soon after that the 
grounds were laid out by Lady Ellesmere, who was evidently a 
highly skilful landscape gardener: for William Keane, who visited 
Hatchford in 1849 and wrote of them in his book The Beauties of 
Surrey, is full of their praises. He describes the six-acre flower 
garden, the rosary, the rhododendron and azalea groves, the four 
acres of kitchen garden, the sixty-acre pinetum full of rare conifers, 
many of them brought from abroad. He was surprised to find that 
a cryptomeria japonica which the Ellesmeres had planted in May 1847 
had grown to a height of twelve feet in less than two years. Ellesmere 
and Chapman his head gardener evidently obtained their good 
results by strict disciphne, for in the tool shed Keane found 'a board 
hanging on the wall with the rules to be observed by the workmen, 
under a fine for neglect.' He ends with a handsome eulogy to Lord 
Ellesmere. 'What a monument will this spot rear to the memory of 
the best benefactor of his country, the Nobleman who made the 
barren waste to rise rich with the productions of foreign climes, 
giving Oriental grandeur to the whole landscape scene.' In the 
summer of 1857 Henry Greville recorded in his diary that 'this 
garden is a lovely sight, a perfect blaze of rhododendrons and 
azaleas, like a Horticultural Show.' The winter that followed was a 
mild one and in January he noted that his mother had been able to 



82 HATCHFORD PARK AND CHURCH 

pick roses and jonquils in full bloom. The Oriental grandeur may 
have departed but the grounds are still very pleasant. 

Ellesmere was a strikingly handsome man, to judge by the 
portrait made by the artist George Richmond in 1852 which is now 
in the possession of Miss C. Egerton of Hatchford End. He was a 
leading man in the Tory party and he and Lady Ellesmere did much 
pohtical entertaining, both in their London house and at Hatchford. 
The Earl also wrote a good deal of poetry, some of which has a 
Surrey interest, notably his account of the great Society Fete which 
was held at Brooke Farm, Thames Ditton, in 1827. Both he and his 
wife were authors, translators of French and German plays, 
dramatists and keen amateur actors. They were jointly responsible 
for a book on the Holy Land after their visit there in 1840: Lady 
Ellesmere did the writing while the charming illustrations are 
lithographs taken from his sketches. Her literary abihty is under- 
standable enough for she was the sister of the famous diarist Charles 
Greville and their brother Henry was also a writer. 

The Grevilles were an old Whig family and many of their Whig 
friends came to Hatchford. It is not surprising, therefore, that 
Hatchford became a meeting-place for the famous people of the day. 
There were statesmen like Lord Grey, Harrowby, Bathurst, the Duke 
of Bedford, the Duke of Norfolk. There was General Sir Harry Smith 
and possibly there was Welhngton. The Duke was a life-long friend 
of the Grevilles and another brother, Algernon, was Wellington's 
aide-de-camp at Waterloo and his Private Secretary afterwards in 
peace-time. Lord Ellesmere wrote a Life of the Duke, who frequently 
stayed with him at Oatlands Park, though he may have become too 
old to visit him later at Hatchford. The Ellesmeres were keen 
riders and thought nothing of riding over to the Duke's home beyond 
Basingstoke and sometimes arrived early enough to get part of a 
day's hunting with him into the bargain. Even Queen Victoria heard 
of Lady Ellesmere's horsemanship and talked to Charles Greville 
about it, as he records in his diary. 

Many of the visitors had homes in Surrey. The Ellesmeres' sons 
lived not far away. Lord Brackley, the heir, at Burwood House and 
Francis Egerton (rather later) at St. George's Hill. There was a very 
long-standing friendship with the famous actress Fanny Kemble 
who had taken parts in their plays in London and at Oatlands Park 
and had herself lived with her family in Weybridge and Addlestone, 
and another frequent Hatchford guest was her sister Adelaide 
Sartoris the opera singer. Two more Weybridge friends, who were 
resident there from 1848, were John Austin the international jurist 
and his \Aafe Sarah, who was an author. Yet another visitor, who 
would later become famous, was the young artist Frederick 
Leighton. 

But perhaps the most interesting and entertaining of them all was 
Lady Ellesmere's brother Charles Greville, a man of many parts. 
He had been familiar with Oatlands Park from much earher days 
when he had managed the racing stable of its owner the Duke of 
York. He was an owner of race-horses himself and had won the 



HATCHFORD PARK AND CHURCH 83 

St. Leger though he never won the Derby. He also found time to be 
Clerk of the Privy Council for nearly forty years and after his death 
he became celebrated as the author of the best pohtical memoirs of 
the nineteenth century. These contain disappointingly few references 
to Hatchford, though he was often there, as we know from the much 
less famous diary of his brother Henry. Apart from their bachelor 
rooms in London Hatchford was the only home the brothers had. 
Their mother as well as their sister lived there, they loved Hatchford 
and both of them are buried there. Lady Charlotte Greville spent 
all her last years with her daughter and, as her monument in the 
church tells us, 'by her desire her remains are buried as near as 
possible to the door by which she entered this chapel for divine 
service.' In its report on Charles Greville's funeral The Times stated 
that he was buried beside his mother 'in the beautiful chapel 
attached to the Countess Dowager of Ellesmere's seat at Hatchford.' 
But this was not correct for Charles and later Henry Greville were in 
fact buried one on either side of their mother outside the porch where 
one can see their tombstones today. Their sister was buried beside 
her husband at Worsley in Lancashire but in Hatchford, too, the 
Ellesmcres have left a worthy memorial in St. Matthew's church. 
This was built on their land at the south-east end of their park and 
entirely at their cost. The original structure, which was hardly more 
than a family chapel and constitutes the present nave, was built of 
brick in 1850. It was the work of the architectural firm of Francis 
and Sons who designed a number of churches in the Home counties, 
including one not far away at Lyne in the previous year. The 
Ellesmeres paid the salary of the chaplain: on memorials and in 
registers he is called vicar or incumbent but, on the analogy of Mr. 
Collins and Lady Catherine de Burgh, he was definitely 'their man.' 
For his residence they purchased the fine old farmhouse of Hatchford 
End which dates from 1759 and has long been the home of the Earl's 
grand-daughters, the Misses Dorothy and Christian Egerton. 
Ellesmere died in 1857 but his son the new Earl continued to live at 
Burwood and his widow and her mother at Hatchford, adding a 
chancel in his memory in 1859. The whole building is in the 
Decorated style of the fourteenth century though the chancel is 
more ornate than the earlier parts. All the windows are single 
lancets with trefoil heads except for the east window which is a 
group of three with 'Decorated' tracery. Each chancel window has a 
row of ball-flowers in the moulding above it. There is much foliage 
ornament, on the hood-moulds of the chancel windows, on the finial 
over the dripstone of the south porch, at the end of the moulding 
of the chancel arch and on Ellesmere's cenotaph. 

The west end is occupied by a gallery containing pews and the 
organ, the font is in fourteenth-century style, and there is a wooden 
rood screen with six painted panels and a rather unusual pulpit of 
open ironwork. The finest feature of the church is the glass which 
fills eight of the windows in the chancel and shows the full-length 
figures of eight saints. It is Flemish and is thought to have come 
from a convent church. Miss Egerton tells me it was acquired in 



84 HATCHFORD PARK AND CHURCH 

Ghent by her father Admiral Francis Egerton. Formerly there was 
some more, placed in the two west windows soon after 1862 by Lady 
Ellesmere in memory of her mother, as is recorded on the latter's 
monument, but it has since been removed. Lady Charlotte's is in a 
group of Greville monuments under the west gallery. That of her 
daughter shows a handsome kneeling figure of Lady Ellesmere in 
low relief. Charles Greville's tablet recites his pwlitical offices and 
displays his coat of arms and the motto 'Vix ea nostra voco.' A brass 
plate near-by commemorates his brother Henry. 

Lord Ellesmere's cenotaph lives in solitary state at the other end 
of the church. A marble panel at the back of the tomb shows a 
kneeling angel praying on either side of the Cross. The canopy above 
is in Decorated style, has crockets above and cusps below, all richly 
carved with foHage, while between them runs a moulding ornamented 
with ball-flowers. It would be of interest to know the sculptor who 
designed this work. Ellesmere had a good deal to do with the 
architect Sir George Gilbert Scott and the sculptor Matthew Noble. 
Scott built Worsley church for him and among the numerous 
churches he built in Surrey were several quite close to Hatchford; 
St. John's, Woking (1842), Westcott (1852), with others built 
shortly after Ellesmere's death like Ranmore (1859) and Ottershaw 
(1864). Ellesmere's elaborate tomb at Worsley was designed by 
Scott and executed by Noble, who also carved a bust of him which 
is now in the National Portrait Gallery. So either or both of them 
might have been involved here. These problems, and no doubt 
others connected with the Hatchford story, are possibly solved in 
the family's muniment room, which is unfortunately not in Surrey. 

The register of burials dates from 1862 and shows clearly how 
small Hatchford was and how much the church was the chapel of the 
big families, nine out of the first eleven entries being : 

Lady Charlotte Greville. 

Charles Greville. 

Arthur Holland (a relative of the Buxtons). 

Charles Buxton of Fox warren. 

Henry Greville. 

Two Chinnerys. 

Two more Buxtons. 

The baptisms register, opened in 1865, is better filled but for over 
fifty years St. Matthew's was not licensed for marriages. The 
EUesmeres' elder daughter was married at Cobham, the first wedding 
to be held at Hatchford being that of their other girl to Lord 
Sandwich in 1865. This and Hatchford's next three marriages, 
which took place as far apart as 1875, 1879, and 1903, were all by 
special licence. 

Other windows and tablets in the church commemorate later 
owners of Hatchford Park. Chief of these was Walter Chinnery who 
came here from Twickenham in the eighteen-eighties. It was he who 
pulled down the Ellesmere house and had a new one designed by 
Rowland Plumbe, an architect who was very active in and around 



HATCHFORD PARK AND CHURCH 85 

London and was also responsible for Woodlands Park at Stoke 
d'Abemon. The house is of red brick with stone dressings and a 
tiled roof and it has eighteen bedrooms on its three floors. Most of 
its outbuildings also remain, including the stabling for twelve 
horses. The Chinnerys have left a much more attractive reminder of 
their sojourn in the lovely marble angel in the churchyard which the 
Esher sculptor F. J. WiUiamson carved for Hermione, their young 
daughter. They were friends of Matthew Arnold who hved in 
Cobham and we may be sure entertained him here. By way of 
contrast Hatchford became a resort of famous cricketers, for Walter's 
son Brodrick Chinnery captained the Surrey eleven and at a cricket 
dinner here the great W. G. Grace made a humorous speech, which 
is fully reported in an unexpected place, the Cobham parish 
magazine. The twentieth century, too, has had some interesting 
features in Hatchford but the term 'Archaeology' has been strained 
far enough already and we can close with the arrival of the 
Samuelsons in 1906 and say nothing of the fine buildings which they 
too have left. 

Within a few miles of Hatchford are several historic houses that 
are open to the public and a number of Surrey's best churches. In 
passing from one of them to another a short time spent in enjoying 
Hatchford's humbler charms would certainly not be wasted. 



THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW 
FARNHAM 

BY 
A. R. DUFTY, A.R.I.B.A., F.S.A. 



ANYONE visiting Famham parish church again for the first 
time since 1959 will be stimulated by the astonishing change 
in its appearance (PI. VIII (b)). Before the great restoration 
of that year, it was in poor repair structurally, dark with the dirt of 
ages and cluttered with makeshift vestries, heavy curtains and 
worn-out furniture, while skyhghts in the nave roof spread an eerie 
green light over all. The gloom and shabbiness are gone : everything 
of quality or interest in the church is now enhanced by improvement 
of the setting and by replacement of the second rate. This has cost 
the parish £25,000, a sum which has been defrayed almost entirely 
by local effort. 

Before churches had been built in England in the great numbers 
we see today, that is, before the Norman Conquest of 1066 and the 
completion of the organisation of parishes in the twelfth century, 
monasteria (EngHsh, minsters) were built to serve the needs of the 
community. They were not monasteries in the restricted sense in 
which we use the term today, but churches, usually of some 
architectural pretension, served by priests, which were founded in 
order to bring teaching and baptism to the people of the surrounding 
country.' Such existed in Surrey, but where is not certainly known. 
If Famham church was ever a minster church, and the old Famham 
parish eventually defined was a large one, co-extensive with the 
Hundred, no structural evidence of it has so far been discovered. 
Domesday Book of 1086 says (fo. 31) that a church then existed in 
Famham ; however no building older than the mid-twelfth century 
has been identified incorporated in the present church nor traced in 
the ground below it in the very limited excavations made in 1959; 
nonetheless, the known continuity of use of sacred sites leaves little 
doubt that St. Andrew's is the successor thereupon of the Domesday 
church. In the late eleventh century Famham manor was already 
held by the bishops of Winchester, and Domesday says that 'Saint 
Peter always held it,' which means that they had held it at least 
from before the time of Edward the Confessor; indeed it was 
probably granted to Winchester in the seventh century. In 1086 the 
church 'richly endowed' was held of the bishops by Osbem de Eu, 
when it was worth six pounds with one hide in Hampshire (probably 
Bentley). The churches that are known to have been affluent at an 

' Sir Frank Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, 148. Cf. seventh-century 
foundation charter of Breedon on the Hill (W. G. Birch, Cartularium 
Saxonicum, No. 841). 

86 



THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, FARNHAM 87 

early date, as Famham thus evidently was, can very often be shown 
to have been the successors of pre-Conquest minster churches. - 

THE FABRIC 

The mid twelfth-century church, of which parts still stand (see 
plan), was probably a complete rebuilding. It was a cruciform 
church; that is, it had a chancel, north and south transepts and a 
nave all leading off from a rectangular compartment, or 'central 
crossing,' which probably rose into a central tower. The south 
transept evidently had a projecting apse on the east; the inference 
from this, such was the formality of church planning at the time, is 
that the north transept had a similar apse. Without excavation, it 
is impossible to know whether the east end of the chancel was square 
or apsidal.3 The chancel and the transepts of this Romanesque 
church still in part survive incorporated in the present building, 
while excavations in 1959 disclosed the foundations and bases of the 
great piers that defined the central crossing ; the latter are now again 
concealed by the modern flooring of the east end of the present nave, 
though part of one of the great chamfered respond-bases can be seen 
by lifting a trapdoor (PL X (a)). In the chancel, high up behind the 
chancel arch, are two carved stone vaulting-shafts (PI. X (b, c))."* 
These are all that remain of the early roof, but they are enough to 
show that the mid twelfth-century chancel had a stone vault, which 
almost certainly was in two square bays ; the two pilaster buttresses 
built originally against the outside walls to counteract the outward 
thrust of the heavy vaulting at the junction of the two bays still 
survive though now projecting into the north and south chapels, 
now St. George's Chapel and the Lady Chapel. The buttress in the 
north chapel (PI. XI (a)) retains its great ovolo plinth moulding and 
is flanked higher up on the west by a chamfered string which 
probably indicates the springing level of the heads of the original 
windows destroyed in the late twelfth century when two large arch- 
ways were broken through this wall, as described below. The 
buttress in the south chapel retains its chamfered base which shows 
very clearly the original diagonal tooUng wrought by the Norman 
masons. The Romanesque south transept extended to a line just 
north of the window in the present west wall, as shown by a vertical 
straight joint disclosed when some of the plaster here was stripped 

2 Independently, Dr. C. A. R. Radford, F.B.A., F.S.A., has also come to the 
conclusion that Farnham may have been a minster church. 

3 Parish churches in England as opposed to Normandy show a preponder- 
ance of the square east end up to the mid-twelfth century, though the 
distribution in England shows a more frequent adoption of the apse in the 
south-east than elsewhere. After about 11 50 the square almost entirely ousted 
the apsidal form from English practice. 

4 The form of the corbels to these shafts is characteristic of Cistercian design 
(information from Professor G. Zarnecki). Waverley Abbey, the first 
Cistercian foundation in England (1128), where the monastic buildings were 
completed before about 1160, is only two miles from Farnham. These are 
important stylistic and dating criteria for the twelfth-century parish church of 
St. Andrew. 



88 THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, FARNHAM 

off in the 1959 restoration ; no doubt the Romanesque north transept 
was the same depth. Still nothing of the extent of the contemporary 
nave is known. 

In the last years of the twelfth century the church was enlarged by 
the addition of the two spacious chapels that still stand flanking the 
chancel on the north and south (Frontis.), pairs of arched openings 
being broken through into them from the chancel. All four arches 
survive, though they have been heavily restored (PI. XI). The two 
chapels are now dedicated to St. George and the Virgin respectively ; 
the choice of patron for the first dates from 1959, that for the second 
is older but has no mediaeval warrant. The archway from the south 
chapel to the south transept is contemporary with the chapel though 
the columnar responds are those of the mid twelfth-century apse 
destroyed when the chapel was built: the north respond is still 
in situ and shows the start of the turn of the apse (PI. XI (b)) ; that 
on the south is reset further out (south) to allow for the enlarged 
opening. In the reconstruction both columns had the abaci and 
bases recut. At the same time too the mid twelfth-century' transepts 
were deepened. Thus, throughout the thirteenth century the church 
was cruciform, with a chancel flanked by large lofty chapels of the 
same length. The two chapels had new windows inserted in the 
fifteenth century (the present east window of St. George's Chapel is 
a nineteenth-century innovation), when also the archway from the 
north chapel into the adjoining transept was rebuilt. Before 1348 the 
chancel was evidently thought to be comparatively mean and money 
began to be set aside for rebuilding it; Archdeacon William Inge, 
the rector, on his death probably in 1348 left 300 marks towards its 
completion, though his successor was accused of embezzling it. 5 
Some work was in progress in 1368 but it was not until 1399 that the 
new chancel was dedicated by Henry, Bishop of Annaghdown (Wint. 
Epis. Reg. Wykeham, II, 313). But in fact, as the surviving late 
twelfth-century paired arches and the two mid twelfth-centun»^ 
vaulting-shafts already described show, it was not a rebuilding; 
it was an extension and, if the earlier vaulting had not already been 
destroyed, an over-all heightening. This enlarged chancel remains 
more or less unaltered to this day, the extent of the old chancel 
being nearly indicated by the paired arches, while the late fourteenth- 
century extension is now occupied by the new Chapel of Devo- 
tion to the east. That the whole project took so long may have 
been due less to rectorial procrastination than to the very real 
disruption caused by the Black Death ; this is often used as a facile 
explanation of contemporary architectural problems, nonetheless in 
Famham in 1349 some 700 parishioners died out of a population of 
upwards of 2,000. 

In cogitating upon the comparative grandeur of the church for 
the kind of small town Famham was in the Middle Ages, first, the 
great size of the parish must be borne in mind, even though chapelries 
were formed in the thirteenth century at Frensham, Seale and 

5 Cited before Bishop William of Wykeham in 1368 (Reg. II, 67). 



THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, FARNHAM 89 

Elstead, which did not directly contribute to the mother church, 
secondly, Famham was the principal residence of the bishops of 
Winchester for many centuries and they paid tithes to their parish 
church certainly from the early thirteenth century. Late in the 
thirteenth century, it is known, Famham, Dorking and Chertsey 
were the most valuable benefices in Surrey {Pope Nich. Tax. 
(Rec. Comm.), 206, etc.). The bishop collated the archdeacon of 
Surrey to the church, the rectory being annexed to the arch- 
deaconry;^ and he, the rector, in his turn, presented to the living, 
that is to say, he appointed a vicar as a parish priest; and again 
records made in the thirteenth, fourteenth and sixteenth centuries 
show that the Vicarage of Famham was rich: the vicar was 
perhaps the richest man in Famham as assuredly he was one of the 
richest priests in Winchester diocese.'' Thus directly or indirectly 
the tendency would be towards appropriate ostentation here, with 
the support to indulge it. 

The later architectural development of Famham church is not 
well documented. The fact that in 1388 new bells were acquired 
implies the existence of a tower ; it may have been over the twelfth- 
century central crossing, for the present west tower was not begun 
for another century or more. In the 1959 excavation it was observed 
that the bases of the central crossing piers, so far as they survived, 
were reddened by fire on their western faces, that is, towards the 
nave. This, and the fact that the whole of the present nave (PI. VHI 
(b)) is of the fifteenth century suggest that the earlier nave was 
burned down and had to be entirely rebuilt. Both the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries were periods of enlargement of parish churches, 
but the visual evidence of the exact process of enlargement here at 
Famham which the structure might have shown has been very 
largely obscured, and even falsified, by the thoroughgoing 
restorations the building underwent in the nineteenth century. The 
earliest windows in both the aisles are to a uniform pattern that was 
the fashion about 1330, but in fact all are completely restored, so 
the question arises: do they reproduce the design of their pre- 
decessors or are they to this design because 'Middle Pointed' Gothic 
was de rigueur among nineteenth-century ecclesiologists and their 
architects? The answer may fortunately be inferred from Sir 
Stephen Glynne's very brief description of the church made about 
1826, before the main restorations. He says that the south aisle 
windows are curvihnear, the north aisle windows rectilinear though 
much mutilated.^ In other words, the former were fourteenth- 
century, thus commending themselves to the ecclesiologists, and 
were so restored ; the latter were fifteenth-century and were restored 
not only to conform with the ecclesiologists' predilections but to 



6 During the tenure of the Archdeaconry of Surrey by John Sutton 
Utterton, 1859-80, it was attached to a stall instead of to the rectory of 
Famham (Order in Council 29 Nov. 1865). 

7 Etienne Robo, Mediaeval Famham (1939), 249. 

8 Notebook 29 (f.9) in St. Deiniol's Library, Hawarden, Flintshire {see 
Surrey A.C., LV (1958), 85). 



90 THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, FARNHAM 

match the former! Thus demonstrably the pre-existing nave had a 
fourteenth-century south aisle. The nave was then burned and 
rebuilt in the fifteenth century in the form it still retains; at the 
same time the large north aisle almost as large as the nave itself was 
added. And a remarkable proof of this sequence is afforded by the 
adjustments made to the west window of each aisle when sub- 
sequently the west tower was added ; that in the south aisle had to 
be moved outward to an eccentric position, whereas that in the 
north aisle, being central in a wider aisle, was left where it was, only 
the south splay being straightened to give room for the tower. 
Also contemporaneously with the building of the new nave and aisle 
the wide archways were inserted between aisles and transepts and 
the archways from the transepts to the central crossing were 
enlarged. But the mid twelfth-century chancel archway was left 
unaltered; this we know from a drawing of 1828 in the British 
Museum wliich shows it (PI. IX (a)).^ Almost certainly too the 
original archway between the central crossing and the nave was 
retained; this is indicated by the wide north and south piers still 
standing one bay west of the chancel arch, their extra width having 
given space for the arch responds to project forward from them; the 
discrepancy in levels between the capitals of the flanking archways 
would have been obscured by the projecting responds. The date at 
which they were cut back flush with the piers is uncertain but it was 
before 1828, for they are not shown in the drawings just mentioned; 
all we see therein are the stepped mouldings, still there today, which 
were added for tidiness when the cutting back was done. In 1841 the 
old chancel archway was greatly heightened and the capitals renewed 
(PI. XI (b)), one of the latter being inscribed 'Patrick 1841' ; among a 
number of bills (in the Farnham Public Library) is one dated 1842 
from William Patrick, for general repairs ;^68.1s.7d. This Farnham 
firm of masons still flourishes. ^° 

Contemporaneously with the construction of the fifteenth- 
century nave arcades and the north aisle, a small annexe was built 
off the north-west corner of the church. Entry to it was through a 
large archway in the north wall of the aisle, and of it this alone 
survives, now blocked. Though at variance with normal mediaeval 
church planning, there can be little doubt that this annexe was the 
Lady Chapel at least from the late fifteenth century. In 1529 William 
Batell desired to be buried 'under the little chapel of our Lady in the 

9 B.M. North Library, Manning and Bray, History and Topography of Surrey 
(extra iUustrated), XVIII. 

'° There is a tradition in the Patrick family that during the nineteenth 
century their masons cut down all the piers of the nave arcades from round to 
octagonal. This might suggest that the present piers are a pastiche of the 
fifteenth-century style and that this stonework is mid twelfth-century and 
surviving from the original nave of that date ; certainly they were all retooled 
in the last century. But Sir Stephen Glynne visiting the church in about 1826 
describes them as octagonal, and indeed the 1828 drawing shows them 
octagonal. It is possible that the tradition is confused: the original capitals 
of the chancel-arch responds were square, the Patrick reconstructions are 
round. 



THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, FARNHAM 91 

churchyard of Famham,' in 1535 Thomas Skynner left 3s. 4d. 'for 
the reparation of the chapel of our Lady St. Mary the Virgin 
standing at the west end of the church,' and in the previous century 
the parishioners, desiring a curate who would help the vicar in their 
large parish, obtained permission from Henry VII to endow a 
perpetual chantry of one chaplain to celebrate at the altar of the 
Blessed Mary in the north side of Farnham Church (L.P.2 Hen. VII. 
16 Feb. 1487). Such a westerly position for the Lady Chapel is not 
unique however, as a visit to Scarborough parish church will show." 
After the Reformation it became a school, then in May 1758 it was 
sold to Edward Beaver for £42 and demolished. An early nineteenth- 
century lithograph of the church shows the butt end of the east wall 
of this chapel;'- it is now cut back to appear as an ordinary buttress. 

The last pre-Reformation work begun was the west tower and the 
fact that it was not then completed beyond the apex of the nave 
roof may have been due to that cataclysm. About 1826 Glyime 
could still describe it thus 'tower upper part unfinished without 
battlements but a large octagonal turret at each comer. ''3 The 
belfry and pinnacles were not added in completion until 1865 
(Frontis.). In 1873-4 the stonework required repairs, which were 
made by F. C. Birch, builder, of Longbridge House (receipts in 
Famham Public Librar}^). 

For the rest, the nineteenth-century extensions and restorations 
are soon catalogued: the 1841 restoration probably included 
re-roofing the nave; in 1846 the west window was renewed; in 1848 
the chancel was repaired, and in 1855 the transepts were further 
deepened and fitted with galleries to the designs of Benjamin Ferrey. 
When Sir Stephen Glynne saw the church about 1826 it had timber 
porches, presumably mediaeval, to the north and south doorways 
and flat ceiUngs painted blue over the chapels and transepts; the 
north porch was renewed in the nineteenth century, the south porch 
has been demolished, and the only fifteenth-century flat ceiling now 
surviving is in the south chapel. 

In the 1959 restoration the high altar was moved from the east 
end of the chancel westward to about the centre point of the former 
mid twelfth-century stone-vaulted chancel and backed by a reredos 
immediately below where the two bays of the vault once met. The 
more easterly two-thirds of the space thus left empty east of the 
reredos were made into the Chapel of Devotion; the west third 
provides an ambulatory immediately behind the reredos. New 
Communion rails were placed before the chancel arch and in the two 
more westerly lateral arches into the north and south chapels. The 
galleries were removed from the transepts, the organ and choir 



^^ At St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol, while the Lady Chapel is in the normal 
position at the east end of the church, the shrine of Our Lady was in an 
extension of the north-west porch. 

'2 Printed by P. Simonau, published by C. T. Cracklow, Surveyor, 1 Crane 
Court, Fleet Street, in 1827. A reconstructional drawing of the chapel is in 
N. Temple, Farnham Buildings and People (1963). 

'3 Surrey A. C. LV (1958). 



92 THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, FARNHAM 

being moved into the north transept and the font into the south. 
The pulpit was moved from the north side of the nave to the south 
side, changes were made in the pewing to give a greater effect of 
space, many of the plainer wall-tablets were transferred to the 
tower, and all the walls and stonework were cleaned and colour- 
washed. The backgrounds of the less important windows were 
replaced with clear glass to give light compensation for blocking the 
hideous skylights in the nave and the hatchments were cleaned and 
re-hung to give colour to the newly whitened walls. The north and 
south chapels were enriched with new glass in the east windows and 
their furnishing included the installation of a new stone altar in 
St. George's Chapel.'^ 

FITTINGS 

So far as we know, at no time in the Middle .\ges did Farnham 
parish church contain the monuments of members of any powerful 
and affluent local family, nor the special embellishment of structure 
or fittings that might have been paid for by rich donors. The 
inference is that patrician families and magnates did not live 
hereabouts in the Middle Ages, and this is confirmed by history. 
Nor is it difficult to deduce the reasons: first, the rather special 
social, political and economic environment created by the presence 
here of the bishops of Winchester and their lordship of the manor; 
secondly, the unproductive nature of much of the land, at least 
southwards. But, as described above in regard to the structure of 
St. Andrew's church, the ecclesiastical environment and the size 
of the parish, together with the maintenance of a general level of 
middling prosperity in the borough, ensured the presence here in 
Famham of a parish church of size, dignity and prestige. By the 
same tokens, we may suppose that it was well furnished for the 
services in the liturgy. Few mediaeval fittings are left, but these few 
support the supposition: they include the elegant combined 
PISCINA and SEDILIA (PI. XI (a)) in the south wall of the chancel, 
now the Chapel of Devotion, and the fine pair of carved oak screens 
across the west archways into St. George's Chapel and the Lady 
Chapel. All these are probably contemporary with the work of 
enlargement to the chancel consecrated by the Bishop of 
Annaghdown in 1399. The piscina (Latin for 'basin') was to receive 
the water with which the celebrant at Mass washed the sacred 
vessels; it drained directly into the ground. This one has a stone 
shelf upon which the vessels were placed until needed at the Mass. 
The sedilia (Latin for 'seats') were used by the priest, deacon and 
subdeacon during Mass. The only other mediaeval fitting is the 
FONT, of the late fifteenth century, carved with sacred monograms 
and the symbols of the Evangelists; in 1959 it was moved from the 

'* This was done without question and thus illustrates the modern 
acceptance of stone altars. In 1845 the provision of such a one in Holy 
Sepulchre Church, Cambridge, was disputed and the Court of Arches ordered 
its removal, the church being closed until a change was made. The doctrinal 
principle stated, illogically, in that case has died hard. 



THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, FARNHAM 93 

nave, from opposite the north doorway, to its present position in the 
south transept. '5 Xhe font-cover carved with children cHmbing up 
to the reigning Christ Child at the apex was given as a memorial in 
1962. The mediaeval brass indent is described below with BRASSES. 

It is regrettable that so little survives from pre-Reformation days 
to complement the mediaeval fabric but, considering the changes in 
the ritual and doctrine of the national church between 1534, when 
Henry VIII repudiated papal allegiance, down to the accession of 
Elizabeth I in 1558 and again the vicissitudes of church fabrics and 
fittings from then to the Tractarian movement of the nineteenth 
century and the modem movement, it is rather more surprising 
that anything of antiquity remains. The rehgious revolutions 
brought about successively by Henry, Edward VI, Mary, and 
Elizabeth I alone took place in the same length of time as that 
between the outbreak of the last war and today (1963); there 
followed destruction and change due to the puritanism of the 
seventeenth century and the rationalism of the eighteenth century, 
to the succeeding apathy and then to the restoring zeal of the 
nineteenth century. 

The Act of 37 Henrys VIII, c. 37, 'for the Dissolution of Colleges, 
Free Chapels, Chantries, Hospitals, Fraternities, Brotherhoods, 
Guilds and Stipendiary Priests' lapsed on Henry's death since these 
bodies were given personally to the king. But the Act reappeared, 
with some modifications, as 1 Edward VI, c. 14, and was the 
authority for the confiscation of their possessions in goods, such as 
precious plate, and property. The Famham Chantry, which had been 
discontinued in 1547, was dissolved and sold on 8 June 1548 to 
John White of Farnham and London, grocer and later Lord Mayor 
of London, and Stephen Kyrtone, merchant of the Staple of Calais; 
it had been founded in the Lady Chapel and cannot itself have been 
richly equipped, but as with most other chantries its endowments, 
which had been estimated at about ^^185,^*^ were well worth seizing. 

The dissolution of chantries, of which there were many in churches 
throughout England, following upon the dissolution of the 
monasteries, made parochial clergy and churchwardens unsure of 
the safety of their church goods. They were not long left in doubt; 
for example, the Commissioners visiting Famham to survey the 
chantry ordered the destruction of images and shrines and directed 
that various changes be made in the liturgy. Expediency then took 
a practical turn in many parishes, Famham among them: capital 
assets were realized while there was still time and the money used or 
invested in ways that, it was hoped, might either be regarded as 
permissible or render it less liable to seizure. As a result, in 1549 the 
Privy Council instructed Commissioners to compile inventories of 
church goods and to forbid sale or embezzlement. But on 3 March 
1551 the Council decreed that 'forasmuch as the King's Majesty had 

^5 Sir Stephen Glynne writing in about 1826 calls it 'modem,' but his 
description may refer to a different font, now gone. 

'6 This yielded ;£8.12s.2d. a year, enough to maintain the chantry and its 
priest. 



94 THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, FARNHAM 

need presently of a mass of money, therefore Commissioners should 
be addressed into all shires in England to take into the King's hands 
such church plate as remaineth, to be employed unto his Highness' 
use,' and in 1552 the earlier inventories were released for the use of 
these Commissioners. The earlier inventories have mostly dis- 
appeared, but many of the 1552 inventories survive, including that 
for St. Andrew's, which is printed in the Surrey ArclicBological 
Collections, IV, and in Father Etienne Robo's Mediaeval Farnham. 
It includes chalices, two of gilt, one of parcel gilt, one of which may 
well have been that given by WiUiam of Wykeham, and sets of 
vestments and frontals for High Mass and daily mass and minor 
feasts sufficient to show that the church was comparatively richly 
equipped. Indeed, it includes also a 'payre of org^^ns' : the only 
other church in the diocese then with an organ was St. Mar}^''s at 
Guildford. The same inventory also shows that the churchwardens 
of St. Andrew's had, as described above, tried to save something 
from the wreck, for in the preceding year they had sold a niunber of 
vestments, an old organ with twenty-six pipes and a basin and ewer 
and had spent the proceeds upon church repairs: an expenditure 
well nigh impossible for the Commissioners to reclaim, though thej' 
noted 'all which is not allowed by the Commissioners but referred to 
be further examined' ; we do not know the outcome. 

Meantime the church had suffered destruction of altars, statues, '^ 
the great Rood figures of the crucified Christ, St. Mary and St. John 
the Divine, the pyx, books, etc. ; so the expenditure upon repairs in 
1551 may have been to mend some of the damage. It is pathetic 
that Thomas Williams, the curate at the time to the vicar William 
Lorkyn, seems to have wrought much of the destruction himself. 

All the mediaeval plate at Farnham, as generally elsewhere, was 
confiscated except one chalice, but this too has since gone. The 
PLATE now includes two silver cups of 1797, which replace the cup 
given by John By worth who died in 1623, a silver paten of 1623 
given by the same John, another paten of the same date and two 
more of 1690 and 1712 respectively, the last given by Thomas 
Preston, and a flagon also of 1712. The modern plate includes a 
beautiful processional cross of metal silvered and gilded given in 
memory of Alice Winifred Hards, 1956. 

We know little about the mediaeval GLASS that must have filled 
the windows of St. Andrew's, for none is left. Again we nmst suppose 
wholesale destruction in the sixteenth century, for Tmagerye was 
contrary to the Kinges proceedings.' Heraldry was not the target of 
iconoclasts, and the arms of William of Wykeham (bishop of 
Winchester 1367-1404) remained in the east window of the chancel 
and those of Cardinal Beaufort (bishop 1405-47) in that of the north 
chapel, now St. George's Chapel; the first was inserted no doubt 

'7 The statue of the patron saint, here St. Andrew, usually stood by the high 
altar; other statues known to have been in Farnham church at about this time 
included St. George, St. Thomas of Canterbury, St. Clement, a statue of 
Jesus maintained by the local brotherhood of Jesus and another of Our Lady 
of Pity. 



THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, FARNHAM 95 

when the chancel was extended (consecration 1399), the second 
probabl}^ when new windows were inserted in the chapel during its 
refurbishing in the fifteenth century, but both are now gone. 
During the 1959 restoration the backgrounds of many of the 
nineteenth-century windows were removed and replaced by clear 
glass to give more light in the church, which was excessively dark; 
this was done in consultation with the Guildford Diocesan Advisory 
Committee, notably with Mr. Bernard Rackham. The two best 
nineteenth-century windows were kept intact, the east window of 
1851, distinguished by reason of its clear and delicate colouring 
though of no great limning skiU, and the west window, which is 
competently drawn and sumptuous in colour, depicting an unusual 
subject in an unusual way. The east window shows scenes in the life 
of Christ, the Crucifixion, His appearances after the Resurrection, 
and the Ascension. The west window shows God in the Burning 
Bush and Jacob's Ladder. The figures of Our Lady and of St. 
George in their respective Chapels are the work of G. E. Crawford, 
1959. 

The four surviving monumental BRASSES are of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. Most notable of all, if it had survived, would 
have been the unusual early fifteenth-century brass of which the 
indent alone remains beside the altar in the present Lady Chapel; 
this shows a tall cross with a small kneehng figure at the foot and a 
long inscription circling the cross-shaft. The later brasses are 
inscribed on plates ; two of the late sixteenth century- show kneeling 
figures, of Benedict layus [Jay_ and Ehzabeth his wife, and of 
Sibilla (Birde) wife of Thomas Lloide and then of Francis Ilay, all 
with children; the third, of the bhnd Henry \'emon of Famham 
'who commendably filled all his stations,' has this moving inscription 
'who having been dark about twelve years on 5 January 1656 
exchanged this life of faith for that of vision.' All these are on the 
south wall of the Lady Chapel. The fourth, of Sir George Vernon, 
1692, is half concealed by the modem Communion rails. The brass 
to the Rev. A. M. Toplady (1740-78), author of the hymn 'Rock of 
Ages,' is a long posthumous memorial. 

The PAINTINGS in the church may not be of high quality but they 
are varied and interesting. In the Lady Chapel, the south WclU 
exhibits plain fining-out simulating masonry jointing and of two 
periods, about 1200 and fifteenth-century, the earlier being origincd 
to the chapel and the later of the date of its renovation. In St. 
George's Chapel, on the north wall, are extensive though illegible 
remains of fifteenth-century inscriptions in black-letter. However, 
perhaps the most interesting, and the worst artistically, is the easel 
painting of the Last Supper, by Stephen Elmer, A.R.A,, the Famham 
artist who died in 1796. It was formerly set in an eighteenth- 
century pedimented surround as the reredos to the high altar; as 
such it is showTi in E. HasseU's drawing of the church in 1828 
(PI. IX (a)). It may well have been removed in 1848 when the 
chancel was repaired. Latterly it hung on the south wall of the 
tower where it still is, but now reversed, for in 1963 when taken 



96 THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, FARNHAM 

down for cleaning it was found to have been tacked on the back of 
the Tables of the Decalogue also shown, over the chancel arch, in 
Hassell's sketch (PI. IX (a)). Another Hassell drawing shows the 
fine carved Carolean COMMUNION RAILS now in the Chapel of 
Devotion, but then (1828) set rather further west. 

Like many town churches, St. Andrew's has an abundance of 
WALL-MONUMENTS to townsfolk. In their lack of any conspicuous 
elaboration, or, be it admitted, of any high artistic distinction, they 
reflect a middling degree of affluence and of taste. The more 
interesting to the visitor for one reason or another are noted below. 
Farnham residents alone will notice and appreciate the simple 
memorials to members of families long resident locally, the 
Falkeners, the Masons, the Hollests and others. In St. George's 
Chapel are the following: — to Nathaniel Butler, 1766, late of 
Jamaica 'where he supported an unblemished reputation,' 'erected 
by his affectionate and much obliged brother' (the pediment of it 
was destroyed in the 1959 restoration) ; to General William John 
Kerr, 5th Marquis of Lothian, Earl of Lothian and Ancram, Kt., 
1815, 'Colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Dragoons and Scotch Greys,' 
a pleasing, simple memorial that was about a generation behind the 
fashion in design when it was erected; to Andrew Windsor, 1620, 
grandson of Lord Andrew Windsor and founder of the almshouses 
in Castle Street, a poHshed slate tablet incised with his kneehng 
figure; to George Vernon, 1735, only son of Sir George Vernon, 
Kt., of Farnham, and the Vernon epitaph set up by George Vernon 
in 1725. Above the last hangs a real late sixteenth-century close 
helmet; this was part of a funeral achievement, the rest of which 
(crest, gauntlets, sword, banners, escutcheons, etc.) has now gone. 
In the Lady Chapel are the following: — four beautiful and elaborate 
carved marble cartouches of the first half of the eighteenth century ; 
a monument to Sir Nicholas Rycroft, 1827, showing a pilgrim resting 
on his journey, carved by Sir Richard Westmacott, R.A., and an 
elegant 'Adamesque' monument to Charlotte, Lady Rycroft, 1803, 
Notable too in this Chapel, in front of the altar, is a noble polished 
black marble floor-slab to Richard White, 1715, carved with his 
shield-of-arms. In the south aisle are three wall-monuments which 
reflect the changing notions that influenced the stylistic develop- 
ment of the nineteenth-century Gothic revival: the first to Henry 
Nichols, 1848, the second the Stevens epitaph of about 1855, both 
showing the predilection for fourteenth-century 'Middle Pointed' 
Gothic, the third, to Louisa Stevens, 1887, showing the changed 
preference for the Tudor Gothic. The Stevens epitaph is influenced 
by the decorative exuberance of the fourteenth-century English 
Gothic found, for example, at Bristol, in the cathedral and in St. 
Mary Redcliffe. The John Buckham tablet of 1730/1 in the same 
aisle displays particularly beautiful lettering. The only other 
monuments to which attention should be drawn are, in the tower, 
to William Cobbett (1766-1835) erected in 1872 by his colleague in 
Parliament, John Fielden, with his posthumous profile portrait 
sculptured by J. H. Foley, and on the south-east buttress of the 



THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, FARNHAM 97 

tower to George Sturt (1863-1927) with consummate lettering by 
Eric Gill. 

A funeral custom maintained until quite late in the nineteenth 
century, and occasionally observed even today, was to hang a large 
painting of the shield-of-arms of the deceased on the front of his or 
her house. There it remained until brought into the church after the 
funeral service, eventually being hung over the owner's monument. 
In St. Andrew's are no less than eleven such HATCHMENTS. They 
are all of the eighteenth or nineteenth century and painted on canvas. 
Often such objects are regarded as encumbrances, even as outmoded 
relics of snobbery, and in consequence destroyed; but the more 
enlightened custodians of our churches are beginning to see their 
decorative qualities, their real heraldic interest and the evidence 
they afford of a phase in social history. For these reasons they are 
displayed in the church, and much they add to its interest and beauty. 

Two good examples of more recent craftsmanship should not be 
missed, the wahiut REREDOS to the high altar installed in 1959 and 
the burr-walnut and oak PULPIT in the early eighteenth-century 
style to the memory of PhiHp Hoste, Rector 1875-93. Both are 
of superior cabinetwork. The typical brass eagle LECTERN is of 1874. 

The position of the organ was at the west end of the nave in the 
early nineteenth century (PI. IX (b)).'^ A new organ was installed 
about 1860,"^ which may well have been the one shown standing on 
the south side of the chancel in an early photograph of the church 
(PI. VIII (a)). The present three manual ORGAN, by J. W. Walker & 
Sons, 1881, was in the north chapel, now St. George's Chapel, which, 
together with Pullen's screen^° conceahng an improvised clergy 
vestry, it greatly encumbered; it was moved to its present position 
on a gallery in the north transept in 1959, being remodelled by 
Messrs. Hill, Norman & Beard in the process. 

The west tower contained a notable series of BELLS by R. Phelps 
of London cast in 1723 (Nos. 1-4, 7) and 1735 (No. 6) with two 
additions by T. Hears of London made in 1820 (No. 5) and 1830 
(No. 8). All these were recast in 1959, whether necessarily is now 
impossible to confirm. 

The REGISTERS date from 1539 but the eariier entries are 
transcriptions. 

This briefly is the record of the parish church of St. Andrew, 
Famham. The visitor will see pleasant vistas through arches 
of pale stone, past plastered walls of the pink of white parrots' wings, 
to windows letting in the clear sunhght (PL XI). He will perceive the 
contributions of a communitv that raised this church and the care 



^8 Manning and Bray, III, 154: 'the organ at the west end was put up in 
1800.' 

^9 Walker's contract was in the sum of £145, Pullen was paid ^50 for the 
case and ;^15 was allowed on the old case. In 1862, Richard Pullen, apparently 
a local craftsman, was paid ;^25 for a screen, presumably that removed in 1959 
from within the north chapel. He could not write and his mark alone is on the 
receipt (in Farnham Public Library). 

2° See note 19. 



98 THE PARISH CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, FARNHAM 

and taste exercised in fitting it for worship. He will apprehend 
the immense disruption of the Reformation and the unceasing 
improvisations made ever since to adapt the earUer buildings to 
provide an appropriate setting for Anglican worship. At Famham 
the year 1959 witnessed the most recent changes. In effect these 
combine something of the dignity and beauty of services in the 
mediaeval liturgy with something of the idealism of Martin Bucer 
and the early Protestant reformers, which was to bring the altar 
amongst the people ; they taught that the fruits to be expected from 
a vernacular hturgy would not ripen unless the church were so 
arranged that people could follow the services with ease and could 
worship as one body with the clergy. 



PARISH CHURCH OF SAINT ANDREW , FARNHAM 



Site of former 
Lady Chapel 




..,,,...' 12th-century sub-oases revealed hy excavation, 10 50 

IH litk century 

MM circa J200 

\M^ 14th century 

^Mi 15th century 

I 1 l6th century 

[^ I8th century 

^tfffyj ipt/i century and modern 



Scale of Feet 
10 10 20 30 40 ^0 60 ■JO 80 po 100 



Note : The dedication of the eastern Chapel 
should be the Chapel of Devotion. 



[Fiuing p. 



NOTES 

Three Flint Itnpletnents from Surrey. — The three implements described 
here (Fig. 1) have the same peculiarity of form, namely splaying of the blade. 
No. 1 was found on Hindhead Common by Mr. H. T. G. Watkins in 1918 
and is now in the Haslemere Museum, i Its cutting edge has been ground with 
great care, but grinding of the rest of the surface is progressively less thorough 
towards the butt end, which retains traces of the cortex. 





Fig. 1. — Flint Implements from Surrey, (j). 



No. 2, from Knap Hill, has been lent to the Guildford Museum by 
Mr. N. P. Thompson. 2 It was found in 1957 by Mr. A. Mersh, formerly of 
58 Chobham Road, at 'Calcof (opposite No. 58). 3 Only the blade is polished, 
and patches of cortex remain, as in the previous case. 

No. 3 was found in the Seale area and is now in the Guildford Museum.4 
Most of the axe is missing but it can be seen that the grinding is restricted to 
the cutting edge. 



^Sy.A.C, XXXIV (1921), 105. Published with the permission of the 
Curator, Mr. A. L. Jewel, A.M. A., F.L.S. 

2 Catalogue number AS 1 10. Nos. 2 and 3 are pubUshed with the permission 
of the Curator, Miss E. M. Dance, M.A., Ph.D 

3 Nat. Grid Ref. SU (41) 95885825. 

4 Catalogue number G 789. 

99 



100 NOTES 

No. 1 is too long and narrow to have been used effectively as an axe and is 
probably a chisel. The other two are small axes. 

The expanding blade is reminiscent of the splayed blades of flat or flanged 
metal axes of the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Ages, as has been frequently 
pointed out. Such flat axes have been found at several sites in Surrey.^ They 
seem to have made their first appearance in this country in late neolithic 
times in the form of broad-butt axes of copper, and continued in use into the 
full Early Bronze Age in the form of rather more slender axes of tin bronze. ^ 
If the derivation of the flint implements with splayed blade from the flat 
copper or bronze axes is accepted these flint implements should be dated to 
the Neolithic/Bronze Age transition. 

Another implement with splayed blade is illustrated in our Collections.^ 
It was found at Redhill. P^ ^ Harrison. 

Dry Hill Camp, Lingfield, Surrey. — This large Iron Age camp (area 24 
acres, including the surrounding triple banks) has recentlv been converted into 
an apple orchard by its new owner, Mr. B. D. Phillipps. For the benefit of the 
young trees it was decided to instal a system of land drains, and as the camp 
is a scheduled monument the consent of the Ancient Monuments Inspectorate 
was obtained. I was invited by them to keep the work under observation in 
case any archaeological facts emerged. 

The work was carried out between 30 January 1964 and 18 February 1964 
under exceptionally favourable dry conditions, except in the last two days, 
by men and plant from Messrs. J. A. Douglas, Tenterden. It involved cutting 
trenches 30 to 36 inches deep in 16 south-north parallels 36 feet apart, 
discharging into a main west-east drain and two shorter drains, the whole 
covering some 4 acres in the eastern third of the camp's area. Seldom can the 
interior of such a camp have been sectioned so extensively. I paid eleven 
visits during the course of the work and saw nearly all the trenches whilst still 
open, observing both the faces of the cuttings and the appearance of the 
upcast. Archa'ologically the result was entirely negative, not so much as a 
sherd or bit of iron slag being seen, nor any sign of occupation soil patches. 
This is in accord with the absence of finds in the interior noted during our 
excavations in 1932 (see S. E. Winbolt and I. D. INIargary in Sy.A.C, XLI 
(1933), 79) and suggests that the camp was never fuUv occupied. 

The work was at first done by a Rotary-hoe Trench-digger, an admirable 
machine from our point of view as it cuts a neat trench only 8 inches wide with 
perfectly smooth sides, good for observation, and deposits the upcast neatly 
alongside in finely broken form. Its action (by a large rapidly-revolving wheel 
armed with small ploughshares) causes so little disturbance that it might well 
prove useful for exploratory trenches on extensive archaeological sites, as it 
would provide information very quickly. Unfortunately it cannot deal with 
rock (or buried walls, too, no doubt) and in this case sandstone soon prevented 
its use. A heavier Massey-Fergusun Trench-digger was then used; this 
machine exactly reproduces the actions of a boy digging a gulley through sand 
with his fingers — pressing downward, pulling towards him, and then lifting 
upward. This upward lift exerts a bursting effect upon the topsoil, and the 
resulting trench although firm and clean-cut below has very loose ragged 
faces in its upper part, not so effective for our observation. The trench is also 
wider, some 22 inches at the top, and the upcast is roughly deposited in 
ragged lumps. 

Mr. F. G. Peck, the farm manager, could not have been more helpful and is 
anxious to treat the surviving parts of the monument with due respect. The 
contractor's men were also sympathetic and helpful, but the negative results 
made it unnecessary to delay them in any way. j j) Margary 

^ Two from Farncombe in the Charterhouse Museum (Catalogue numbers 
169-1955 and 167-1957) one of which is illustrated in Whimster, D.C., 
Archceologv of Surrey (1931), 72, Fig. 13a. One from Walton Heath; Sy.A.C. 
LVIII (1961), 112, Fig. 4. 

2 P.P.S.. XXIX (1963), 258-325. 

3 Sy.A.C. XXXVII (1926), 90 and PI. II. 



NOTES 101 

Iron Age and Romano- British Pottery from Compton. — Pottery was 
discovered when, in 1931, a cutting was being made through White Acre 
Copse, Compton,^ for the new by-pass road. Describing the discovery, Lady 
Boston stated that two fragments of pottery and an iron implement were 
found in a deposit of fire-blackened stones, charcoal and ash at a depth of 
about three feet below the surface of the ground. ^ She described the sherds 
but did not illustrate them. The finds were deposited in the Guildford Museum. 
The sherd No. 2 described here is stored in the Museum3 with an iron implement 
in a box which contains a note stating that the contents came from White 
Acre Copse in 1931 . This sherd agrees satisfactorily with one of Lady Boston's, 
but her other one, which she describes in greater detail, is not in the same box. 
The sherd No. 1 described here is stored in another box, labelled 'By-pass, 
Compton,' and containing mainly Romano-British pottery. The contents of 
both boxes are marked with the same number (881) and appear under one 
entry in the Museum catalogue. This sherd (No. 1) answers well to Lady 
Boston's description, except that she states that the decoration was made with 
a twisted string, which is certainly not the case here, and it is probably safe to 
assume that this is the missing sherd. 



\ 





Fig. 2. — Iron Age and Rom.\no-British Pottery from Compton. (J). 

The description of the pottery is as follows. No. 1 (Fig. 2) : black ware with 
white flint grits; smoothed, or burnished, surface, pitted in places; decorated 
with a shallow groove about a quarter inch below the rim and a row of 
impressions shaped like a distorted figure-of-eight: hand-made. No. 2 
(Fig. 2) : reddish ware with grey core ; decorated with grooves which are 
filled with a white deposit: probably wheel-made. 

The sherd No. 2 is part of a butt beaker or a jar with high conical neck and 
prominent rounded shoulder,* and probably dates from the first century a.d. 
The sherd No. 1 is part of a 'saucepan' pot, a type which, according to 
Wheeler, 5 ranges from Dorset to Sussex. To this distribution we may add 
Berkshire (Blewburton Hill, 6 Southcote, Reading^) and West Surrey. In 
Surrey, examples have been found at West Clandon,8 Wisley,^ Hascombe 
Campio and Thorpe (Mixnam's Pit)," and the occurrence of one at Compton 
is therefore not surprising. The mode of decoration on the Compton sherd is 
unusual and no parallels from Surrey are known to the writer. Perhaps the 
closest parallel that comes to mind is the 'duck-stamped' pottery of Iron 
B in the Western Province of Hawkes' classification,' 2 but no cultural 

1 Nat. Grid Ref. SU (41) 955479. 

2 Boston, Cecilia, Lady. History of Compton in Surrey (1933), 8. 

3 Boston op. cif. 8. The pottery is published by kind permission of the 
Curator, Miss E. M. Dance, M.A., Ph.D. 

4 Cf. Bushe-Fox. J. P. Third Report on the Excavations of the Roman Fort at 
Richborough, Kent (1932), Plate XXXVI, 259. 

5 Wheeler, R. E. M., Maiden Castle, Dorset (1943), 228. 

6 Berks Arch. Journal, LIII. 

7 P.P.S., III (1937), 47, Fig. 3, B3; 49, Fig. 4, D9; 53, Fig. 6, 1. 
« Arch. J., CI, (1944), 52. Fig. 2. 

9 P.P.S.. XI (1945), 34. Fig. 2, I, 15 and I, 17. 

^°Sy.A.C., XL (1932), 94. Also in Major J. Godman's collection 
(unpublished). 

11 Weybridge Museum (unpublished). 

12 Frere, S. S. Problems of the Iron Age in Southern Britain (1958), 1-16. 



102 NOTES 

connexion should be based on a single isolated sherd. With these saucepan 
pots, which in Surrey belong to an Iron Second B context, the decoration, when 
present, is either curvilinear and extending over most of the exterior of the 
pot or is restricted to a zone just below the rim. The majority of the examples 
from Sussex are of the first type,' while the ones from Hampshire and Dorset 
are of the second.* The Compton pot, on these considerations, suggests a 
spread into Surrey from Wessex, which is in accordance with the apparent 
absence of the type in East Surrey and Kent, but it should be noted that the 
West Clandon and Wisley sites yielded saucepan pots, or the rather similar 
convex-sided bowls, with swag decoration of the Sussex type. 

The circumstances of the discovery and the association with an iron tool, 
which Hawkes compared to one of medieval date from St. Catharine's Hill, 
Winchester, 3 prevents us from treating this as a closed deposit, but if the two 
sherds are, in fact, contemporary the lower date limit for the saucepan pot 
is brought down to a fairly late date, and possibly to the first century a.d. 

E. E. H.^RRISON. 

Thirteenth -Century Jug from Quarry Street, Guildford. — Fig. 3, 1 shows 
a reconstructed thirteenth-century jug given to Guildford Museum by Messrs. 
Brewer & Sons Ltd. The major part of it was found in fragments during 1960 
when additional storage was being constructed at the rear of their premises in 
Quarry Street, Guildford.'* The work involved cutting back into the chalk 
bank on the edge of which the houses on the west side of Quarry Street are 
built. A rubbish pit or cesspit was exposed in section in the chalk face, dating 
from the period when this area lay within the precincts of Guildford Castle, 
and the broken jug was found in the filling. 

The jug is made of sandy, biscuit-coloured fabric and ornamented with 
shallow double grooves in straight and wavy lines. The upper part is thinly 
and patchily covered with green glaze extending from below the collar to the 
bottom of the ornamented area. p Holling 

Thirteenth -Century Jug from Guildford High Street. — The medieval 
jug illustrated in Fig. 3, 2 was given to Guildford Museum by Messrs. 
Sainsburys, having been found in July 1962 during building work at the rear 
of their premises in Guildford High Street (formerly the site of the White Hart 
Inn). 5 The jug was contained in close-packed chalk rubble filling what 
appeared to be two sections of old quarry tunnel joining almost at a right angle. 
These tunnels were not excavated for any distance because they occurred at 
the edge of the building site, but one section led towards the High Street at an 
angle of about 45 degrees and the other towards the Royal Oak Inn in 
Sydenham Road. Their junction had been enlarged to form a small rectangular 
chamber. The floor of the tunnels, which differed in level by about a foot, lay 
approximately 16 feet below the present ground surface. 

The jug is of coarse, sandy, reddish fabric which has flaked in places. It has 
a finger-pinched base, a plain strap handle, and a simple incised ornament on 
the front of the neck (Fig. 3, 2 (a)). A point of particular interest is its great 
similarity to one of two other jugs of the same type, also in the Museum, which 
were found before 1857 during building work adjoining the Angel Inn in 
Guildford High Street. The comparable jug from the Angel^ is virtually 
identical in fabric and measurements except at the foot, which is about 1 inch 

» Curwen, E. C. The Arch<sology of Sussex {\937), Piute XXYII. Sx.A.C. 
LXXX (1939), 244 and Plate XI. Sx.A.C. LXXXVH (1948), 95-7 and Plate 
VII. The last of these gives additional references. 

2 Wheeler, op. cit. 227, Fig. 70, No. 156. Proc. Hants Field Club, XI (1929), 
114, Fig. 13 and 117, Fig. 14. 

3 Boston, op. cit. 8. 

* Nat. Grid Ref. SU(4n996494. 

5 Nat. Grid Ref. SU(41J999495. 

6 Illustrated in Bernard Rackham's Medieval English Pottery, Plate 21. 



NOTES 



103 



greater in diameter and has the finger impressions closer together. The neck 
of this jug is also ornamented in similar style (Fig. 3, 2 (c)). The other Angel 
jug is taller (16J inches) with an elongated neck decorated with the design in 
Fig. 3, 2 (b). Its fabric is similar to the other two but has small patches of dull 
green glaze over the upper part. 



. S^^ 





Fig. 3. No. 1. — Jug from Quarry Street, Guildford. (^) 
No. 2. — Jug from Guildford High Street. (^) 

The rubble filling of the Sainsbury tunnels also produced a crude type of 
multiple cresset, consisting of a square red brick with rounded corners and its 
upper surface evenly divided into four saucer-shaped hollows; the sides are 
6| inches long and 2^ inches high. p Holling 

Medieval Pot- Quern from Shere. — The quern illustrated in Fig. 4 was 
given to Guildford Museum in 1960 by Sir Jocelyn Bray. It was found in rubble 
underneath an old bread-oven demolished during internal alterations to Elm 
Cottage, Upper Street, Shere. The cottage bears the date 1620. 

Both stones of the quern are made of German lava, probably from the noted 
quarries at Mayen in the Eifel. The four holes in the upper stone are of 
unequal size and depth. The largest, measuring If inches across and IJ inches 
deep, is also more evenly shaped than the others. The lower stone is worn 
unevenly and its sides are slightly polished with use. 

Mr. G. C. Dunning ha^ commented in a letter that several querns of this 
type are known: they have generally been found in contexts datable only 
broadly to the medieval period, but one from St. Pauls Cray, Kent, was most 
probably of thirteenth- or fourteenth-century date from the evidence of other 
material on the site. p Holling 

Medieval Pottery from the International Stores, Guildford High 
Street. — In the spring of 1963 work was begun at the International Stores in 
Guildford High Street to enlarge the existing basement, which did not extend 
to the full width of the building.' The floor of the basement was 8 feet below 
the pavement level, and the area to be excavated had been disturbed by the 
construction of walls, not all related to the present building. 



I Nat. Grid Ref. SU(41)995495. 



104 



NOTES 



An apparently medieval architectural feature of some interest was exposed 
in the course of clearing ancient rubble from an area about 70 feet behind the 
shop front. The rubble was found to conceal part of a well-constructed newel 
staircase consisting of four steps forming a quadrant with part of a floor or 
landing above and below. A single piece of hard chalk composed each step 
with its corresponding section of newel post, and the steps were mortared 
together. The newel post butted on to a well-built wall of chalk blocks which 
turned at right angles about 6 feet from the base of the steps. This appeared 
to have been an external wall, although only a small section of it survived. 
From their position in relation to the wall, the steps could have continued 
upward, but not downward. As the lower landing was only 5 feet below the 
pavement level, it would presumably represent a ground floor level of the 
house to which it belonged. 




Fig. 4. — Medieval Pot -Quern from Shere. 



Through the co-operation of the contractors some medieval pottery was 
obtained from two rubbish pits, but doubtless much more could have been 
recovered had the working space been less restricted both in area and lighting. 
The depth of the pits can only be assessed in relation to the basement. The 
smaller, 18 inches in diameter with its bottom 2 feet above the basement floor, 
was exposed in section in the wall and contained fragments of a single cooking 
pot. Fig. 5, 1, and a clay spindle whorl, Fig. 5, 11. All the other pottery 
came from a very large pit which continued for at least a foot below the 
basement floor, and had originally been 6 feet in diameter, although it was cut 
into on one side by an internal modern wall across the basement. The major 
part of a large glazed water storage jar or cistern. Fig. 5, 8, was found about 
4 feet above the floor, and the miscellaneous sherds Fig. 5, 2-7, 9, 10, came 
from the section between floor level and about 2 feet above it. 

Commenting on this material in a letter, Mr. G. C. Dunning considers that 
the simple brown strip pattern of the cistern points to an early fourteenth- 
century date, while the remainder of the pottery is probably twelfth-century : 
the scratch-marked pots with finger-printed rims (Fig. 5, 1 and 5. 7) have 



NOTES " 105 

close parallels at Old Sarum,^ and although scratch-marking continues into 
the thirteenth century, its combination with finger-printed rims may be a 
sign of earlier date. (At Old Sarum the comparable pottery was attributed to 
a date perhaps no later than the early years of the twelfth century fiom its 
association with a coin of William I dated to about 1080). 

Mr. A. W. G. Lowther kindly showed me the pottery from his excavations 
at Pachesham Manor. ^ This includes some very large shell-gritted storage jars 
of similar form to Fig. 5, 6, but with undecorated rims, which continued there 
until the late thirteenth century. Although pottery with the distinctive 
scratch-marked surface was absent from Pachesham, the motte at Abingei3 
produced round-based scratch-marked pottery with plain rims very similar to 
Fig. 5, 2 and 5, 4. 

The pottery from the International Stores, which was given to the Guildford 
Museum, is the earliest so far discovered in Guildford, and a description of the 
illustrated material follows. 

Fig. 5, 1. Cooking pot with irregular rim and oval top 7| inches by 8 inches. 
Hard sandy grey ware with blackish exterior and brown interior surface. Rim 
lightly finger-printed. The scratching which covers the surface is not in 
parallel lines: width of scratches varies from a hair line to ^ inch. 

Fig. 5, 2. Coarsely made pot of varying thickness. Hard sandy grey ware 
with surface varying from grey to black. Shallow pits below the rim apparently 
caused by careless handling in shaping the pot. Surface between shoulder and 
base is covered with fine scratches in parallel sweeps. 

Fig. 5, 3. Hard sandy grey fabric with surface varying between brown, 
grey and black. 

Fig. 5, 4. Similar fabric to Fig. 5, 3, surface light grey. Covered with fine 
scratches. 

Fig. 5, 5. Hard grey ware with small white grit. Black surface, smoothed 
on exterior so that grit shows only on the inner surface. 

Fig. 5, 6. Hard grey ware with white grits up to J inch long. Surface fairly 
well smoothed and coloured dark red except near the base where walls are 
blackened both sides. Rim decorated with incised wavy line. 

Fig. 5, 7. Similar fabric to Fig. 5, 3, surface dark grey to black. Rim 
lightly finger-printed in long flat patches. Scratch-marked surface. 

Fig. 5, 8. Large storage jar or cistern with bung-hole of biscuit-coloured 
fabric decorated with incised lines round the neck and inverted V's in brown 
paint. Glaze covers the upper half, except beneath the handle, varying from 
yellow-green to dark green. Irregular finger-printing round the edge of the 
flat base is not continuous. 

Fig. 5, 9. Hard sandy grey sherd. Decoration of very shallow grooves with 
a sharp edge, possibly done with a finger nail. 

Fig. 5, 10. Hard sandy grey sherd. Surface grey inside and light red 
outside. Decorated with shallow parallel grooves. 

Fig. 5, 11. Spindle whorl of greyish white clay ornamented with parallel 
lines. 

F. HOLLING. 

Rood Pictures in Tliames Ditton. — Early this century, eleven panels of a 
sixteenth-century rood picture in tempera on oak were found in a builder's 
yard at Surbiton. They were identified as belonging to the parish church of 
St. Nicholas, Thames Ditton, and were rehung in their original position over 

» Antiq. Journ.. XV, pp. 174-192. 

* Interim Reports in Proceedings of the Leatkerkead &> District Natural History 
Society, I, Nos. 1-3. 

3 B. Hope-Taylor, The Excavation of a Motte at Abinger in Surrey, Arch. J., 
CVII. 



106 



NOTES 





; 



7 





Fig. 5. — Finds from the International Stores, Guildford High Street. 
(1-5, 7, 9-11, i; 6, 8, i) 



NOTES 107 

the chancel arch. They have been recently restored by Mr. Alastair Stewart, 
F.I. I.e., Chief Restorer, Conservation Section, Historical Buildings Dept., 
Ministry of Public Building and Works, and he has described them in some detail 
in the Parish Magazine for February 1964 and also in the Esher News for 
7 February 1964. 

An unusual feature is that the original background pigment and gesso were, 
for some inexplicable reason, scraped off, isolating the figures against the bare 
wood. Although incomplete, they deserve attention as there are exceedingly 
few paintings on panel or plaster left after their destruction by Archbishop 
Cranmer. The crucifix is missing but depicted are two angels, the sun and 
moon, skulls and bones while the initials IHC occur frequentl}'. One panel has 
been painted over with a seventeenth-century design of fruit and ribbons. 

These tempera paintings are extremely naive in execution but contain a 
surprising amount of symbolism. At the time they were discovered, the late 
Aymer Vallance, M.A., F.S.A., dated them as about 1520 and Mr. Stewart 
concurs. (Plate XII.) 

T. S. Mercer. 



EXCAVATIONS 

Weston Wood, Albury. Late Bronze Age Homestead (N.G.R. 053484). 
Excavations, under Miss Joan M. Harding, continued at weekends throughout 
the winter months and for two weeks at Easter, to keep ahead of the bulldozer. 
A rectangular working floor was found, levelled in the sloping hillside. It 
contained four fires, a one foot wide hole stuffed with pieces of two large 
storage pots, and at the furthest end from the house, a pit. This pit was four 
feet across, and eighteen inches deep, with a fiat base. Lying on its side on the 
bottom was a storage pot. Grain was scattered about, and there were small 
pieces of twisted fibre like rope. The grain has been studied by Professor 
Bunting and Dr. Helback. Two-thirds of it is barley, mainly six-rowed barley, 
and one-third wheat, mainly emmer. The grain has also been radio-carbon 
dated by Professor Godwin. Two separate tests gave the same result, exactly, 
510 B.C., plus or minus 110, confirming the site to date from the end of the 
Late Bronze Age. A plastic skin was taken of the pit profile by Mr. A. J. Clark, 
using "Polybond" polyvinyl acetate emulsion. The technique used removes a 
skin of sand, clay and hard podsol, for study and preservation elsewhere. 
Experiments were carried out using local clay and pot pounded boilers to make 
Late Bronze Age type pottery. Firing was not altogether successful because of 
the wet weather. 

Investigations were started at the end of the year on an occupation floor to 
the south and on the same contour. Much pottery is being found. 

Miss Harding read a paper on the site to the Prehistoric Society on 9th 
November, at the Institute of Archaeology, and on the same occasion an 
exhibition of finds, and the plastic skins, was set out, with the assistance of 
Mr. HoUing. 

Hawk's Hill, Fetcham (N.G.R. 155554). Excavations were continued on the 
Iron Age farmstead site, under the direction of Mr. F. A. Hastings. The main 
object of this season's work was to look for the source of the drainage gully 
mentioned in the previous report, and to carry out a proton gradiometer 
survey (directed by Mr. A. J. Clark) of that portion of the orchard not yet 
excavated. Four storage pits were found in the trench opened to trace the 
gully, three of which cut into the gully obviously post-dating it. A fifth pit 
was found under the property boundary hedge but it could not be fully 
excavated. It straddled the gully which it had apparently destroyed, so the 
source of the gully remains unlocated. It is hoped to get permission to excavate 
in the adjoining garden at a later date. 

The proton gradiometer appeared to pick up the above pits but a mass of 
buried iron of modern date may have influenced the readings. However, two 
further pits were located. They were some 100 feet from the centre of the 
main concentration of occupation, and but for the gradiometer they would 
not have been discovered. One of these was very large being 9 feet 6 inches 
in diameter and of the same depth. 

The pottery recovered included some very early material of 'All Cannings 
Cross' type — haematite ware with incised decoration and white inlay. Thus 
the pottery sequence covers a long period of occupation beginning with Iron 
Southern Second A through to Second B, much the same as Little Woodbury 
where some three centuries of occupation was postulated. 

Other small finds include a bronze pin, a chalk disc (possibly pot-lid) and 
two more pottery spindle-whorls, one of which was exceptionally large. It has 
been suggested that these are used as fly-wheels for drilling purposes as well 
as spinning and this large one would seem to qualify for this purpose. There 
were many rodent bones in some of the pits and another interesting point 
was the apparent ritual deposits of bones. In one pit, an ox jaw-bone had been 
placed on a layer of chalk near the bottom of the pit, obviously not thrown in 
with other rubbish. In another pit there was a deposit of pig bones in the 

108 



EXCAVATIONS 109 

centre of the floor and in the deep pit was found a complete ox skull, over- 
laying the four lower halves of the legs of an ox, all articulated. 

A total of twelve pits, including the two shallow ones noted previously, have 
now been discovered. 

Rapsley, Near Ewhurst — Roman Villa (N.G.R. 080415). Excavations were 
continued in early spring and in July and August under the direction of Lady 
Hanworth. Most of the ground plan of Site 1, the Dwellinghouse, has now 
been recovered, revealing a house with two bisecting corridors; the main one 
runs east to west with the bath block south of it and the living rooms on the 
north, the second corridor runs from north to south down the eastern side of 
the house. One of the outer walls has the slots for sleeper beams and uprights 
of half-timber construction. At the junction of the corridors is a doorway 
leading to a paved pathway which runs eastwards for a short distance. The 
probable line of a piped water supply from a spring in Hareholt Copse has 
been traced. 

Lt.-Col. G. W. Meates, F.S.A., very kindly spent a fortnight on the site 
investigating the possibility of an earlier timber-built structure underlying the 
masonry building. He found rubble-filled sleeper trenches from which the 
beams had been removed, presumably when it was rebuilt in stone, indicating 
an earlier wooden building with a clay floor, whose west-east dimension is 
17 feet 7 inches. The north-south dimension has not yet been established as 
the south end of the sleeper trenches was cut ofi when the stone building was 
constructed. 

A section was cut through the bank on the north side of the tennis court 
to investigate the extent of Site 2. This revealed a wide wall continuing 
northwards, which may well run under the present-day house. It is clear that 
there must have been considerable disturbance when levelling the ground for 
the tennis court. 

It is hoped to continue excavations in 1964. 

Moated Enclosure, Moat Farm, Hookwood, Charlwood (N.G.R. 266447). A 
week's trial excavation was carried out in August under the direction of 
Mr. D. J. Turner. The site is clear of trees and is threatened by farming 
operations. Moats are common in this part of Surrey, but most of them are 
still occupied by buildings or are covered by woodland, and little excavation 
has been done. 

From the results of this short, rain-interrupted, excavation, it would seem 
that occupation was confined to one corner of the enclosure and may have 
been restricted to the first half of the fourteenth century. However, these 
results are tentative as much more work needs to be done both inside the 
enclosure and within the associated adjacent earthworks. 



The following Excavations were supported by the Society: — 

Queen's Well, Carshalton (N.G.R. 279644). Following the demohtion of 
Queen's Well, a multi-period house in the centre of Carshalton village, to make 
way for old people's homes, a rescue excavation was organised by the 
Beddington, Carshalton and Wallington Archaeological Society. The 
foundations of the house were investigated to attempt to elucidate its history, 
and trenches in the garden produced material from the medieval occupation 
of the site. The work was directed by Mr. and Mrs. D. J. Turner. 

Merton Priory (N.G.R. 264698). Excavations were carried out during nine 
weekends in 1962 and fifteen weekends in 1963 on an area of allotments 
occupying an irregular strip of land between the site of the cellarer's range 
of the Priory and the known position of some other medieval buildings. The 
site represents the last remaining undisturbed land close to the Priory and in 
a locality of growing factories is unlikely to remain available for many more 
years. 

A resistivity survey showed that remains are likely to be confined to one 
corner of the half-acre site and work was concentrated here. A flint cobble 



110 EXCAVATIONS 

roadway dating from approximately 1350 or a little earlier was found. 
Abutting on this, and partly overlaying it, was a yard floor made of fragments 
of Upper Greensand, some of which had been dressed. This floor, which ran out 
of the allotments and under the railway in the direction of the cellarer's range, 
appeared to date from the fifteenth century. The whole site was overlain by 
a layer of debris, etc., dating from the destruction of the Priory in 1538, and 
had been crossed by a series of irrigation ditches of eighteenth century date. 
Finds were numerous and varied but very fragmentary. They included 
pottery, patterned floor tiles, jettons, iron objects and worked bone. 

The work was sponsored by the archaeological section of the London 
Natural History Society and by the Merton and Morden Historical Society. 
Mr. D. J. Turner acted as director. 

Southwark. The Society, as one of the constituent bodies of the Southwark 
Archaeological Excavations Committee, helps to support a varied and lively 
programme. The main activities in 1963 were: — 

(a) Winchester Palace. Excavations were carried out from November 1962 
to April 1963 under the direction of Dr. F. Celoria. This excavation was 
classed as an emergency since the area was to be broken up by pile-driving 
and other activities. Though an average of about 30 persons from London 
and Hertfordshire kept the dig going at weekends even during the snow periods, 
only part of the site could be excavated. An area of 100 feet by 50 feet known 
to have Roman buildings underneath was left undug for lack of workmen, 
equipment and funds. In the last few weeks of the dig three workmen and a 
drill were lent by a Hertfordshire Contractor (Mr. Boyd Gibbings) and a 
Swedish firm presented a petrol-driven drill to the director to help him out. 
Money to keep the dig going was collected from the public and the diggers 
as soon as the Southwark Committee's naoney was exhausted. The results 
were not as full as could be expected if workmen had been available earlier 
on, but several previously unknown medieval walls and drains were recorded 
and a range of pottery from the 13th to the 19th centurj' was obtained. Below 
and near were Roman walls, quantities of plaster (the pigments are being 
analysed by the Government Chemist), pottery, etc. At a depth of 23 feet 
below ground level a lamp with wick intact was found. The pottery did not 
have a sharp stratification but the 15,000 recorded sherds (Cuming Museum 
register nos. 62/18/1 onwards) produced many 'firsts' for the London region 
even with coarse Roman pottery types. 

(b) For several weeks in July and August Mr. R. Marsden directed 
excavations on a bombed cellar site at the junction of St. Thomas and Joiner 
Streets. The aim was to investigate the edge of the channel previously found 
under New Guy's House, and which appeared likely to pass through the site 
as it ran towards the Thames. The sequence found was: marshland cut by a 
series of Roman drainage ditches, succeeded by silt layers of Roman date, 
and in the 16th or 17th century a barrel well or pit. The Roman finds included 
a piece of bronze with the figure of a cupid in relief, and fragments of leather 
shoes. No trace of the Guy's Channel was discovered and it must be concluded 
that it passed perhaps further to the east, or more probably to the west. 

(c) For several weeks in July Dr. F. Celoria directed an Excavation Training 
School at the Cuming Museum and on a bomb site in Borough High Street. 
The aim was to fill the gap in the training of amateurs in the London Region 
left by the cessation of the London University Extra-Mural Training Schools. 
The need for training for the numerous new enthusiastic volunteer diggers 
had become very apparent in the Committee's excavations last year at 199 
Borough High Street. The Course, consisting of lectures and practical 
instruction and digging, was a great success. The site chosen was on the west 
side of the High Street, all former scientific excavations having been on the 
east side. Unfortunately, there had been a great deal of disturbance in the 
area chosen, though this perhaps provided a more valuable exercise in the 
disentanglement of ancient stratification than an uncontaminated site would 
have. A considerable quantity of Roman, Medieval and later pottery was 
found, and a 17th-century brick sump. 



OBITUARIES 

WILLIAM FRANCIS RANKINE 

By the death, at the age of 85 on 28 March 1962, of WiUiam 
Francis Rankine, F.S.A. (Scotland), not only was this Society 
deprived of a member of outstanding eminence and one who had 
served it as Honorary Editor from 1947 to 1949 and in other 
capacities, but archaeology in the country as a whole lost a leading 
worker in the field of Mesolithic studies, and one whose writings over 
many years are to be found in the leading archaeological journals. 
Although brought up mainly in Surrey (he was at school in Dorking), 
his family connections were all with Scotland ; there he spent much 
time in his younger days, and thither he went for holidays whenever 
possible in later life, when, as a schoolmaster at Badshot Lea, near 
Famham, the end of summer term permitted a dash to the North. 
Those who, like the writer, knew him first in the period between the 
wars, will have pleasant memories of weekend visits with him to 
many sites of archaeological and geological interest, and of tea- 
parties at his home when lively discussions on these and kindred 
subjects took place. There are many in the Farnham area who owe 
their interest in these matters to the instruction which they obtained 
from Mr. Rankine, who had a rare gift of arousing their interest by 
the manner of his explanation and description of the things to be 
seen or found in the country, whether birds, wild plants, fossils or 
archaeological remains. The first site of outstanding importance 
which he discovered in the area, was that of the mesolithic habitation 
site, with a wealth of flint implements and remains of dwellings, on 
part of the land of the Famham sewage works (site '507' or site 'A' 
as it is variously termed). This he investigated in a series of 
excavations, some in co-operation with Dr. J. G. D. Clark, during 
1929 to 1935, and reported fully in volume 54 of our Collections and 
in Antiquity and the Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. In 1936 
his discovery of a neolithic long barrow at Badshot Farm brought 
about the excavations which he carried out in conjunction with the 
late Alexander Keiller and Professor Stuart Piggott, and which 
uncovered the remains of the only such barrow as yet known in 
Surrey. The pottery and implements there found are in Guildford 
Museum, and a full report in this Society's special volume on 
Famham. His work on many important sites of the mesolithic 
period, largely in Surrey but also in other counties, provided the 
material for many important reports and research papers and in this 
work he had the invaluable assistance of his wife. At the time of his 
death he had completed and published work on the extensive sites 
which he discovered in the forest and heaths of East Hampshire 
(Oakhanger, Selboume), and had it not been for ill health and his 
untimely death, he was planning still further work in the area. His 
never-faihng cheerfulness and enthusiasm will long be remembered 

111 



112 OBITUARIES 

by all his friends. His publications for the Society comprise two 
Research Papers {A Mesolithic Survey of the West Surrey Greensand 
and The Mesolithic of Southern England), Part II {Mesolithic and 
Neolithic Studies) in the Society's Survey of the Farnham District and 
a number of articles in the Collections. 

A.W.G.L. 



BERNARD RACKHAM, 1876-1964 

The Society has lost an old and active friend by the death of 
Bernard Rackham on 13 February 1964 at the age of 87. He 
was a most distinguished scholar; his erudition, which was great, 
lay lightly on him : in conversation it was the breadth of his culture, 
the versatihty of his informed interest, the courtesy of his 
approachabihty and his sense of fun which were striking. His 
knowledge was always at the disposal of those who asked, however 
young, however ignorant, and he would take immense pains over 
small fragments of pottery or china found in excavation. He was 
born in 1876, and after winning a first in Classics at Cambridge he 
entered the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1898. Here, in the 
Department of Ceramics, was to lie his life's work. His numerous 
publications in the fields of Porcelain and Maiolica and stained glass 
were of the highest standard not only of scholarship but of clarity 
and popularization ; and his output continued for two decades after 
his retirement with unabated vigour and originality. In his subject 
he was supreme: indeed he was its creator, for he can be regarded 
as the founder of the scientific study of ceramics in this country. 
He had an international reputation. He was made C.B. in 1937, and 
had been elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1928; he 
joined our Society in 1938, and for many years was an active 
member of its Council. His services to the Society after he came to 
live in Guildford were especially in demand : for many years he was 
our representative on the Library, Museum and Arts Committee of 
the Guildford Corporation, and he was Honorary Editor of the 
Collections from 1942-1948, being responsible for the appearance of 
volumes 48-49 in the difficult conditions of those days. He also 
served on the Society's General Purposes and Library Committees. 
In 1956 he was elected a Vice-President. The Society mourns the 
passing not only of one of its most distinguished members, but of a 
very lovable personality. c c t? 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES 



Christ Church, East Sheen. A Centenary History. By R. C. Gill and 
F. Mattingley. 8^x5^. Pp. 32 with 1 1 plates. 1963. 3s. 6d. paper covers; 
7s.6d. cloth. 

This well written and well illustrated little book will naturally interest the 
congregation of the church concerned more than the general reader. The 
building was erected in memory of Edward Penrhyn, whose 'many public 
services and private virtues' in Surrey were no doubt worthier of remembrance 
than his earlier career as M.P. for Shaftesbury before the first Reform. Act. 
Although the architect, Arthur William Blomfield, was then living near the 
site supervision of the work was so lax that the tower fell down just before the 
church was intended to be finished. However, it was soon set up again, and the 
church has never lacked loving care ever since. Short biographical notes of 
local residents add to the interest of this attractive publication. 

T.E.C.W. 



English Churchyard Memorials. By Frederick Burgess. 8^x5^. Pp.326 
with 32 plates and 65 figures. Lutterworth Press. London 1963. 50s. 

It is a pleasure to welcomie this distinguished and beautifully produced book 
by a member of our Society. It is the first comprehensive work of its kind in a 
hitherto neglected field, and has been liberally illustrated with the author's 
own photographs and drawings. Nearly every aspect of the subject has been 
covered, and Mr. Burgess has gathered an astonishing mass of out-of-the-way 
information. He begins by describing the origin and development of church- 
yards, and follows with an account of sepulchral monuments from prehistoric 
times to 1900. Next comes a chapter on design, and another on craftsmen, 
quarries, transport, and prices. There are three indexes, including a most 
valuable one of nearly 60f3 monumental stone carv^ers compiled from evidence 
provided by signed work and personal memorials. The topographical index 
mentions 27 places in Surrey, and a far higher number both in Kent and 
Sussex, while Wales, Scotland, and Ireland are represented. The author 
quotes the Rev. Leigh Richmond's ridiculous reference to 'trifling, licentious 
travellers, wandering about the churchyards of the different places through 
which they pass, in search of rude, ungrammatical, ill-spelt and absurd verses 
among the gravestones.' Apart from rude verses Mr. Burgess describes such 
things in Surrey as the cast iron slab at Crowhurst, 1591 (Fig. 40), the patent 
medicine advertisement on the gravestone at Godalming, and the poppy plant, 
symbol of sleep, on a well carved stone at Epsom. The author has studied 
various account books, and particularly illuminating is his notice of the 
Gilliam family of Dorking who worked at Deepdene for Thomas Hope. 
Between 1790 and 1830 Surrey marble fetched 3s. 6d. a foot, while mantelpieces 
in Charlwood marble were quoted at £4 10s. 

Coming to modern times, Mr. Burgess has nothing but scorn for lawn 
cemeteries, such as, presumably, the reticent layout at Randalls Park, 
Leatherhead, where the monumental mason has little scope. One would have 
welcomed an opinion of the very different type of cemetery at Brookwood. 
Much nnore to the point is the state of our ancient churchyards, where we are 
warned of vandalism masquerading as tidiness. Valuable suggestions are made 
for their preservation, including liaison between local archaeological societies 
and diocesan officials. It is suggested that societies such as ours can also help 
by co-operative and co-ordinated investigation into the work of our 
monumental craftsmen, and the author states that the 'Surrey Archaeological 
Society is compiling a list of the surviving grave-boards in the county.' 
It is surprising to learn that 'In Surrey at least, during the seventeenth 
century, these were the sole means of commemoration.' 

113 



114 REVIEWS AND NOTICES 

One might express one or two minor criticisms or differences of opinion : — 

Page 17. It was in 429 that Germanus, a bishop and not a 'former cleric' 
won the Alleluia victory, which may, however, have been theological rather 
than military. 

Page 31. Stoke Poges is correctly called 'the most visited of any church- 
yard' since it is generally regarded as the scene of Gray's Elegy. But 
neighbouring Upton is another contender for the Elegy. 

Page 51. Although John Evelyn mentions being taught in the porch 3,t 
Wotton (not Wootton) he was probably referring to the base of the tower. 

Page 134. The printer appears to have turned an Anglican into an 
'Augustan.' 

Page 153. Louis Philippe no longer lies at Wey bridge. 

Page '244. Abbotts Ann, worth visiting for its maiden's garlands, is in 
Hampshire, not Dorset. 

Pages 271-2. Can we be sure that the medieval mason 'had a smaller 
working year than is customary today owing to the various holy days that 
were observed'? And was it all the way from 1200 to 1850 that 'A working 
week usually consisted of 5^ days; averaging 9 hours daily.'? 

The large print and high quality paper do justice to the contents of this 
valuable volume. 

T.E.C.W. 

Guildford Freemen's Books, 1655-1933. Edited, with an Introduction, by 
Hector Carter, with a Foreword by His Worship the Mayor of Guildford, 
Alderman Geoffrey Swayne. 8^ X 5^. Pp. 64 with 2 plates. Guildford 
Corporation. 1963. 6s. (6s.6d. or one dollar post free.) 

Over a thousand names of Guildford freemen and apprentices appear in 
this book which gives in alphabetical order, with references, the essential 
information of the original Freemen's Books. These are briefly described in 
the Introduction. Names not in alphabetical sequence, mainly masters, are 
given in one index, another lists occupations and offices, and a third gives 
places mentioned other than Guildford and Stoke-next-Guildford. These are 
arranged under counties and it is somewhat surprising in a Surrey publication 
to find Clapham included under London for an entry covering the years 
1807-1815. Similarly Ambersham, being in Hampshire in the text, could well 
have appeared under that county, as well as Sussex, in the index. 

The index of occupations and the occupations of fathers and sons supplied 
in the body of the book will to some people be of the greatest interest and they 
give the book its value for social and economic history generally. It is in this 
sphere, rather than the genealogical which gains, that one loses much by the 
alphabetical arrangement, though, with the high cost of printing, one can 
suggest no other method of making the material available. It would, however, 
have added to the usefulness of the book if a section of the Introduction had 
been devoted to an analysis of the occupations, trades and crafts of those 
apprenticed, indicating the periods in which they occurred, as for example the 
grocers and tallow chandlers mainly between 1701 and 1764, or 'the art of an 
Attorney's Clerk or Writer' only from 1819 to 1848, the master generally 
being Jos. Hockley. Of the people who came into Guildford from a distance 
the son of a Manchester fustian manufacturer who was apprenticed from 1819 
to mercers and drapers in the parish of St. Mary or the son of a Devon farmer 
apprenticed to a tin plate worker in Guildford in 1823 ma}' be noted. 

In welcoming the publication the Mayor looks back to members of his own 
family. William, son of William Swayne of Merrow, farmer, was appi enticed 
for seven years from 1792 to John Terry, senior and junior, carpenters. 

It is pleasing to note references to publications of the Surrey Record Society, 
particularly Dr. Enid Dance's edition of Guildford Borough Records, 1514- 
1546, to which the present book, though covering a later period, is in some 
ways complementary. 

M.G. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES 115 

Collins Field Guide to Archeology in Britain. By Eric S. Wood. 
7^x5. Pp. 384 with 58 phh. on 32 plates, 38 te.xt figures, 5 tables and 
19 maps. Collins, London, 1963. 25s. 

Our Hon. Secretary has written a very extraordinary book. The age of 
polymathy has been considered over, and even single subjects like archaeology 
are now broken down into specialisms in which each worker tends to be in 
ignorance of his colleagues' progress. But this book spans the whole of British 
Archaeology and even protrudes at either end, for it begins with geology and 
ends with bygones. No one, of course, today can hope to cover all this with 
even expertise, but Mr. Wood has made a valiant attempt. He has acknow- 
ledged various colleagues who read the text or parts of it; we may think it a 
pity that the process was not carried further, and one or two surviving 
infelicities prevented, e.g. the attribution of Glastonbury to Caesarian 
refugees (p. 69), Caesar's visit to Wheathampstead in 55 as well as 54 (p. 70), 
or (Fig. 36) the labelling of a Flavian mortarium as fourth-century. No doubt 
there are many other detailed specialist points of this sort, and also other 
larger area of disagreement, such as whether cross-ploughing was really 
practised in Celtic agriculture (p. 107) or whether Roman villas really used 
open fields (p. 112). But of course there was not space for discussion of all 
these things. 

The text is a masterpiece of compression — in places too much so, as in the 
section on Pottery — and appended to it will be found useful sections on the 
law of antiquities, local societies, sites worth visiting (with 18 regional maps), 
and a list for further reading. Not the least praiseworthy part of the book is 
the selection of plates, all of them good photographs and most of them 
unusual : there are also many well-drawn text-figures. 

It is fascinating to dip into page after page of out-of-the-way information, 
and one cannot but regret the absence of detailed references in footnotes; 
but it is perfectly true that those who take the trouble can usually work their 
way back to original sources through the bibliography, and it is to be hoped 
that many will be inspired to do so. Perhaps the most extraordinary selection 
is labelled Odds and Ends, containing little essays on such diversities as 
Animal Doors, Boiling Mounds, Coracles, Follies, Ice Houses, Noosts, Plague 
Pits, and anti-body-snatching huts. Here we can truly marvel at the erudition 
which has given us such a delightful miscellany and may wish for more. The 
book will certainly enrich the explorations of those who use it with care, and 
we must hope that it will reach a wide public. g g p^^RE 

Place-names of Edenbridge. By John Irwin. 8^x6^. Pp. 40 with 1 plate. 
1 folding map. Edenbridge and District Historical Society. 1961. 10s. 

The scope of this study is 'limited to place-names within the Parish of 
Edenbridge and its immediate environs and to those surviving in living 
memory.' It includes parts of the parishes of Lingfield and Limpsfield in 

^"'■^^y- E.E.H. 

The Story OF Archaeology in Britain. By Ronald Jessup. 8^x5|. Pp.214 
with 44 pis. London: Michael Joseph Ltd., 1964. 25s. 

In this book, which is intended for the interested layman and the young 
reader, the author aims to give a picture of archagological discovery and the 
growth of archaeological method and ideas. The book is very readable and 
includes some entertaining and apposite anecdotes. The list of Surrey sites 
in the last chapter is strangely arbitrary and the omission of the Haslemere 
Educational Museum frona the list of Surrey museums is unfortunate. 

E.E.H. 

The Hampshire Seventeenth Century Traders' Tokens. Edited by 
J. L. Wetton. 8^x5^. Pp. 37 and 22 pis. Kings of Lymington. Ltd., 
1964. 15s. 

This book, by one of our members, is a detailed revision of the Hampshire 
section of Dr. G. C. Williamson's Trade Tokens Issued in the Seventeenth 



116 REVIEWS AND NOTICES 

Century (Vol. I), 1889, including hitherto unrecorded issues and varieties, 
together with notes relating to the issuers and photographic illustrations of 
most of the tokens. Of particular relevance to Surrey is a reference to William 
Didlesfold who may have been of Farnham. E E H 

City Posts. By Martin Nail. Pp. 13 with map. Nonsuch and Ewell 
Antiquarian Society Bulletin, Series 3, Vol. I, No. 1. 1964. Typescript. 

This article is a description of 'City Posts' or 'Coal Posts' and of their 
history and purpose. It deals with those within the present Municipal Borough 
of Epsom and Ewell and the Urban District of Banstead. These posts were 
set up in 1862 to demarcate the area within which certain duties on coal and 
wine were payable to the Corporation of the City of London. A map and lists 
of sites are included. E E H 



INDEX 



Albury, Weston Wood, Bronze Age 
site, 10-17; excavation at, in 
1963, 108 

Andrews, Nicholas, 52 

Annaghdown, Henry, bishop of, 88, 
92 

Arnold, Matthew, 85 

Artington, 53, 61, 64, 72, 74 

Atwood Iron Age and Romano- 
British Site, Sanderstead, 1960, 
by R. I. Little, 29-38 

Austin, John, 82; Sarah. 82 

Axe-haft, wooden, 7, 9 

Bacon, requisitioned, 63, 74-5 (table) 
Barclay, arms of, 39 

Barclay, John, 39; Mary, 39 
Barnes, Jeremy, see Warrants issued 

by 
Barton, William, 41 ; Elizabeth, 41 
Basing, 67 

Batell, William, 90-1 
Beaufort, Cardinal, 94 
Beaver, Edward, 91 
Bedding requisitioned, 55, 57, 60 
Beddington, coats of arms in church 
at, 39-50 
House, 46 
Bedford, Duke of, 82 
Beef requisitioned, 58, 70, 74-5 

(table) 
Beer requisitioned, 58, 63, 67, 74-5 

(table) 
Bell, Henry, 52, 53 
Bentley, Hants, 86 
Berecroft, monument and arms, 41 

Robert 41 ; Katherine, 41 
Binscombe, see Godalming 
Birch, F. C, 91 
Birde, Sibilla, 95 
Biscoe, monument and arms, 39 
Biscoe, Elizabeth Mary, 39 
Black Death, 88 
Bones, animal, 32, 36 

human, 35 
Books, etc., reviewed and noticed; 
Christ Church, East Sheen. By R. C. 

Gill and F. Mattingly, 113 
City Posts. By Martin Nail, 1 16 



Books (Conid.) : 

Collins Field Guide to Archcsology 

in Britain. By Eric S. Wood, 115 

EngUsh Churchyard Memorials. By 

Frederick Burgess, 113-4 
Guildford Freemen's Books, 1655- 

1933. By Hector Carter, 114 
The Hampshire Seventeenth Century 
Traders' Tokens. By J. L. 
Wetton, 115-6 
Place-names of Edenbridge. By 

John Irwin, 115 
The Story of Archeology in Britain. 
By Ronald Jessup, 115 
Boston, Cecilia, Lady, 101 
Bourchier, arms of, 47 
Bourchier, John, 47; Philippa, 47 
Brackley, Lord, 82 
Brand (or Brend), Matthew, 72 
Bray, Sir Jocelyn, 103 
Bread requisitioned, 58, 63, 65, 67, 
69, 70, 74-5 (table) 
money for, 66, 69 
Brend (or Brand), Matthew, 72 
Bridges, monuments and arms, 39, 
40, 42, 47 
Bridges, Alexander Henry, 40, 47; 
Frances, 40; Henry, 40, 47; 
William, 39 
Bristow, arms of, 47 
Bronze Age awl, 13, 15 

copper cakes, 1-2; ingots, 12, 15-16 
fields, 13 

flat axes of bronze, 100 
flint axes, 100; implements, 12, 16 
grain, 12, 14 
hoards, 1, 2 

homestead at Weston Wood, 
Albury, 10-17; duration of 
occupation at, 16; date of, 16 
implements from Kingston 

Museum, 1-9 
pottery, 12. 13, 14, 15, 37 
quern, 12, 13-14 
rope, 14 

spindle whorls, 13, 15 
Browne, Major General, see Warrants 

issued by 
Bryan, arms of, 43, 44, 46 

117 



118 



INDEX 



Buckham, John, 96 

Buckland Hills, course of terrace- 
way on, 19 

Bullocks requisitioned, 68, 74-5 
(table) 

Bunting, Prof. A. H., 14 

Burial, Romano-British, 35 

Burwood House, 82, 83 

Busbridge; Enton (or Labourne), 53, 
64, 75; Tuesley, 53, 64, 75 

Butler, Nathaniel, 96 

Butter requisitioned, 58, 68, 74-5 
(table) 

Buxton, Charles, 81, 84; family, 84 

ByTvorth, John, 94 

Cambridge, Duke of, 1 

Canterbury, arms of Province of, 48 

Carbon 14 dating, 12 

Carew, monuments and arms, 41, 43, 
44, 45, 46, 47. 49 

Carew, Anna, 47; Anne, 44, 46; 
Benjamin, 49; Benjamin Francis 
Hallowell, 49; Catharine, 46*; 
Charles Hallowell, 49; Eleanor, 
45; Francis, 44; Isabel, 41; 
Joan, 45; John, 45*; Malyn, 46; 
Margaret, 45 ; Marie or Mary, 45, 
47; Mercy, 41; Nicholas, 41, 44, 
45*, 46, 47*; Nicholas Hacket, 
46; Peter. 46; Richard, 46 

Carshalton, Queen's Well, excavations 
at, in 1963, 109 

Carts requisitioned, 66, 71 

Caterham, Foster Down; course of 
North Downs Trackway to Mers- 
tham Down, 20-1 ; to Titsey, 
21-3; to Winders Hill, 27 

Catteshall, see Godalming 

Chapman, gardener at Hatchford 
Park, 81 

Chapman, monument and arms, 46 

Chapman, Elizabeth, 46; Robert, 46; 
William, 46 

Charlwood, excavations at Moat 
Farm in 1963, 109 

Charterhouse Museum, 100 n. 

Cheese requisitioned. 58, 63, 67, 68, 
70, 74-5 (table) 

Chertsey, 89 

Chiddingfold, 53 

Chilworth, 62 

Chinnery family, 84, 85 

Chinnery, Broderick, 85; Hermione, 
85; Walter, 84 



Christ's Hospital School Museum, 1 

Civil War in the Hundred of Godal- 
ming, by F. G. Mellersh, 51-79; 
index of names, 76-9 

Clark, Anthony J., 17 

Clergy, distressed, of Ireland, 71 

Glutton, C. H., 1 

Coats of Arms in Surrey Churches 
(Pt. V), Beddington (Walling- 
ton), by H. W. Pointer, 39-50 

Cobbett, William, 96 

Cobham, 80; church, 80, 84 

Colley Hill, see Reigate 

Collyer, arms of, 47 

Collyer-Bristow, monument to, 47 

CoUyer-Bristow, Andrew, 47; Mary, 
47 

Committee of West Division of Surrey, 
see Warrants issued by 

Compton, 53, 61, 64, 72, 74; White 
Acre Copse, 101 

Coombe, bronze chisel from, 2; 
copper cake from, 2 ; hoard from, 
1-2; socketed axe from, 2; 
spearhead from, 2; sword from, 2 

Copper cakes, 1, 2; ingots, 12, 15-16; 
analysis of, 15-16 

Cornwall, Dr. I., 12 

Cowlinge, Nicholas, see Warrants 
issued by 

Crawford, G. E., 95 

Dalrymple, arms of, 40 

Dalrj'mple, Frances, 40; William 

Toinlies, 40 
Delamare, arms of. 41 
Delamare, Mercy, 41; Stephen, 41 
Devenish, D. C, on Local Bronze 

Implements in Kingston-upon- 

Thames Museum. 1-9 
Dispenser, arms of, 42 
Dorking, 89 

course of North Downs Trackway 

to Colley Hill, 19; to Guildford, 

19 
crossing of River Mole at island 

ford, 25; at Pixham Firs, 26; at 

Stepping Stones, 26 
Dry Hill Camp, 100 
Dufty, A. R., on the Parish Church 

of St. Andrew, Farnham, 86-98 

Eashing, see Shackleford 
Egerton, Christian, 81, 82, 83; 
Dorothy, 83; Francis, 82, 84; 



INDEX 



119 



Egerton [Contd.) : 

Lord Francis, 81 
Ellesmere, Earl of, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84; 

Lady, 81, 82, 83, 84 
Ellis, arms of, 45 
Ellyott, Sir William, 58 
Elmebrygge, monument and arms, 41 
Elmebrygge, Roger, 41 
Elmer. Stephen, 95 
Elstead, 89 

Engayne, arms of, 43, 44, 46 
Enton (or Laboume), see Binscombe. 
Esher News, 107 
Essex, Earl of, 63-4 
Ewhurst, Roman Villa at Rapsley, 

excavations at, in 1963, 109 
Excavations of a Late Bronze Age 

Homestead in Weston Wood, 

Albury, Surrey (Interim Report), 

by Joan M. Harding, 10-17 
Excavations carried out or supported 

by Sy.A.S., 108-10 

Falkener, monument to, 96 
Farewell, George, see Warrants issued 

by 
Farley, M. E., 29 
Famcombe, see Godalming 
Famham, pay for, 54 

Castle; bedding for, 57, 60; horses, 
cart for, 56, 7 1 ; warrants issued 
by officers at, 53 
Chantry, 93 
Manor, 86 

Parish Church of St. Andrew 
described by A. R. Dufty, 86-98 
earliest building, 86 
excavations at, 87, 89 
fabric, 87-92; twelfth-century, 
87-8; fourteenth-centur}', 88; 
fifteenth -century, 89-91 ; six- 
teenth-century, 91 
fittings, 92-97; bells, 89, 97 
brasses, 95; communion rails 
96; font, 92-3; glass, 94-5 
hatchments, 97; lectern, 97 
organ, 97; paintings, 95 
piscina, 92; plate, 94; pulpit 
97; reredos, 97; sedilia, 92 
wall-monuments, 96-7 
possibly a minster church, 86-7, 

87 n. 
registers, 97 

restoration in twentieth century, 
86, 91 



Ferrers, monument and arms, 41 

Ferrers, Broomfield, 41 

Ferrey, Benjamin, 91 

Fetcham, Hawk's Hill, excavation at, 

in 1963, 108 
Fielden, John, 96 
Fields, bronze age, 13; furrow 

sections, 17 
Finney, W. E. St. L., 1, 2 
Flint axe from Knap Hill, 99-100; 

from Scale, 99-100; axes with 

splayed blade, imitating bronze 

axes, 100 
chisel, from Hindhead Common, 

99-100 
implements, 12, 16, 30 
Floyd, Henry, see Warrants issued by 
Foley, J. H.. 96 
Foster Down, see Caterham 
Foster, John, 66 
Francis and Sons, architects, 83 
Frensham, 88 
Frere, Prof. S. S., review by, 115 

Garland, monument and arms, 48 
Garland, Anne (?), 48; WiUiam, 48 
Gatton Park, course of Terrace-way 

through, 19, 24 
Gee, monument and arms, 42 
Gee, Ann Paston, 42; family, 49; 

Richard, 46; William, 42 
George Lane Gravel pits, bronze 

hoard found at, 1 
Gill, Eric, 97 
Glynne, Sir Stephen, 89, 90 n., 91, 

93 n. 
Godalming, Civil War in the Hundred 

of, by F. G. Mellersh, 51-79 
parish, 53, 61, 72; parish and town, 

53, 56, 64, 65, 74. 75, 
tithings of, 53 
Binscombe, 53. 56, 64, 74 
Catteshall, 53, 74 
Famcombe, 52, 53, 64. 74, 75 
Godwin, Prof. H., 12 
Gollancz, M., review by, 114 
Gooch. Captain. 62 
Gould, arms of. 42 
Gould, Ann Paston, 42; Alderman 

F.. 1, 2; family, 49 
Grace, W. G., 85 
Grain, Bronze Age. 12. 14 
Greville. Charles. 82. 83. 84; Lady 

Charlotte, 83, 84; Henry, 81, 82, 

83, 84 



120 



INDEX 



Grey, Lord. 82 

Guildford, course of North Downs 
Trackway to Dorking, 19 
requisitioned items served in at, 56, 

57, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 
trackway, Pewley Down— Echo 

Chalk Pit — St. Catherines, 19 
Guildown Avenue, possible course 
of North Downs Trackway, 19; 
High Street, medieval pottery 
from, 102, 103; Museum, 16, 17, 
80, 99, 101, 102, 103, 105; Quarry 
Street, medieval pottery from, 
102; Red Lion Hotel, 56 

Guildford Directory, 80 

Hacket, arms of, 46, 48 

Hacket, Anne, 46 

Hallowell, arms of, 49; family, 49 

Hambledon, 53, 61, 64, 68, 75 

Harding, Joan M., on the Excavation 

of a Late Bronze Age Home- 
stead in Weston Wood, Albury, 

Surrey (Interim Report), 10-7 
Hards, Alice Winifred, 94 
Harness requisitioned, 65, 72, 74-5 

(table) 
Harrison, E. E., notes by, 99-100, 

101-2; notices by, 115-6 
Haslemere (Haselmere), 53, 58, 72; 

Museum, 99 
Hassell, E., 95-6 
Hatchford, Hatch Fold, Hatchfold, 

80 ; derivation of name, 80 
Hatchford Park and Church, by 

R. R. Langham-Carter. 80-5 
Hatchford Park, houses built by 

Smith, 80; Ellesmere, 81; 

Chinnery, 84; garden, 81-2 
Hatchford End, 83 
St. Matthew's Church, 83-4; 

chaplain, 83; Flemish glass in, 

83^ 
Hay requisitioned, 63, 64, 66, 68, 69, 

74-5 (table) 
Heather, arms of, 46 
Heather, Anne, 46; Elizabeth, 46; 

John, 46 
Henry VII, 91 

Hillar, Robert, 49; Susanna, 49 
Hog's Back, route of Noith Downs 

Trackway along, 18-9 
Holland, Arthur, 84 
Holiest, monument to, 96 
HoUing, F., notes by, 102-6 



Holman, Robert, 72 

Hoo, arms of, 43, 44, 46 

Hore, K. D., 29 

Horses requisitioned, 54-5, 56, 57, 58, 

59, 60, 61, 62, 63. 64, 65, 67, 68. 

71, 72, 74-5 (table) 
Hoste, Philip, 97 
How, Walter, 71 
Hurtmore, see Shackleford 

Idron, arms of, 43, 44, 46 

Idron, John, Baron of Carew and, 45 

Hay, Francis, 95, Sibilla, 95 

Imbhams furnace, 58 

Inge, William, 88 

Ireland, distressed clergy of, 71 

Iron Age habitation site at Sander- 
stead, 29-38 
hill-fort, 100 

pottery, 2, 16, 30-2, 37, 101-2; A, 
32, 37; duck-stamped, 101; 
Second B. 32, 37 ; C, 32 

Iron slag, 32, 33 

Jarman, Henry, see Warrants issued 

by 
Jay (layus), Benedict, 95; Elizabeth, 

95 
Jennings, Elizabeth, 49 
Jones, monument to, 49 
Jones, Hugh, 72; John, 49*; Samuel, 

see Warrants issued by ; Susanna. 

49; William, see Warrants issued 

by 
Jordan, Edward, see Warrants issued 

by 

Karr, Andrew Ramsay, 80 

Keane, William, 81 

Keene, John, 68 

Kemble, Fanny, 82 

Kerr, William John, Marquis of 

Lothian, 96 
Kingston-upon-Thames Museum, 

local bronze implements in, 1-^ 
Kyrtone, Stephen, 93 

Labome (or Enton), see Busbridge. 
Langham-Carter, R. R. on Hatchford 

Park and Church, 80-5 
Launder, Olive, 52; Mr., 59 
Leighton, Frederick, 82 
Lennard, arms of, 47 
Lennard, Anna. 47; Frances, 47;. 

Stephen, 47 



INDEX 



121 



Lillie, Rev. H. W. R. on the North 
Downs Trackway in Surrey, 18- 
28 

Little, R. I. on the Atwood Iron Age 
and Romano-British Site, 
Sanderstead, 1960, 29-38 

Lloide, Sibilla, 95; Thomas, 95 

Loom weights, 12, 30 

Lorkyn, William, 94 

Lothian, William John Kerr, Marquis 
of, 96 



Malmayns, arms of, 43, 44, 46 

Manchester, Earl of, 63 

Margary, L D., note by, 100 

Martin, Catharine, 46; John, 46 

Mason, monument to, 96 

Matchwicke, Widow, 68 

Mayen, stone from, 103 

Mears, T., 97 

Medieval cresset, 103; pot-quern, 103, 

104; pottery, 102, 103, 104-6; 

rubbish pits, 102, 104; spindle 

whorl, 104, 105, 106; staircase, 

104 
Mellersh, F. G., on the Civil War in 

the Hundred of Godalming, 51- 

79 
Mellersh, John, 52* 

Philip, account book of, summary 

and comments by F. G. Mellersh, 

51-79; index of names in, 76-9; 

method of charging, 53 
Mercer, T. S., note by, 105, 107 
Mersh, A., 99 
Merstham Down, course of North 

Downs Trackway to Colley 

Down, 23-4 ; to Foster Down, 

20-1 ; non-existence of Dr. Hart's 

passage from Terrace-way to 

Ridgeway, 20 
Merton Priory, excavations at, in 

1962 and 1963, 109-10 
Metcalfe, C. R., report on wood 

samples from Kingston-upon- 

Thames Museum, 9 
Mickleham; Burford Bridge, crossing 

of the River Mole at, 26, 27 
Mohun, arms of, 43, 44, 45, 46 
Mohun, Eleanor, 45 ; Lord of Dunster, 

45; Margaret, 45; William, 45 
Mole, river, crossings at Dorking, 

24-7 
Monasteria, 86 



Money levied, 56, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 
65, 66, 70, 71, 74-5 (table) 

More, arms of, 45 

More, Edward, 58; Frances, 47; 
George, 45; Marie or Mary, 45, 
47; Poynings, 58; Robert, 47 

Mould, Mark, 66 

Mutton requisitioned, 58, 74-5 (table) 

Nichols, Henry, 96 

Niedermendig lava, 33, 38 

Noble, Matthew, 84 

Norfolk, Duke of, 82 

North Downs Trackway in Surrey, by 

Rev. H. W. R. Lillie, 18-28; 

through Weston Wood, 10 
Northumberland, Duchess of, 10 

Oatlands Park, 81, 82 

Oats requisitioned, 61, 62, 63, 64. 66, 

68, 69, 74-5 (table) 
Ockham ; Hatchford Park and Church, 

80-5 
Onslow, Sir Richard, see Warrants 

issued by 
Osbern de Eu, 86 
Ox requisitioned, 63, 74-5 (table) 
Oxenbridge, arms of, 44, 45, 46 
Oxenbridge, Malyn, 46 
Oxford, arms of See of, 40 

Parish Church of St. Andrew, Farn- 
ham, by A. R. Dufty, 86-98 

Parkhurst, Sir Robert, see Warrants 
issued by 

Patrick, William, 90 and n. 

Peas requisitioned, 68, 74-5 (table) 

Peper Harow, 53, 61, 64, 75 

Phelps, R., 97 

Phillips, Winifred, 14 n. 

Pigott, monument and arms, 39 

Pigott, James and his wife, 39 

Pilgrims' Way, 10 

Pistols requisitioned, 57 

Plastic skin technique, 13, 17 

Plumbe, Rowland, architect, 84 

Pointer, H. W., on coats of arms in 
Surrey Churches (Part V), 
Beddington (Wallington), 39-50 

Poole, Dorset, 62 

Poor Clergy of Ireland, 71 

Pork requisitioned, 68, 74-5 (table) 

Portsmouth, Hants, 62 

Pot-boilers, 30 

Poultry requisitioned, 67, 74-5 (table) 



122 



INDEX 



Preston, Thomas, 94 
Proby, 39 

Pullen, Richard, 97 and n. 
Puttenham, 53, 61, 64, 72, 75 

Quennell, Captain, 57 

Quern, Bronze Age, 13-14; pot-, 103, 

104; rotary, 32, 33, 38; saddle, 

30, 38 

Rackham, Bernard, 95; obituary 
notice, 112 

Radford, C. A. R., 87 n. 

Radio-carbon dating, 12 

Rake, 52 

Rankine, W. F., obituary notice, 
111-2 

Reigate; Colley Hill, course of North 
Downs Trackway to Dorking, 
19; to Merstham Down, 23-4 

Richmond, George, 82 

Ridgeway, prehistoric, at Sander- 
stead, 29, 36 

Roman Road at Sanderstead, 29, 36 

Romano-British burial, 35 

habitation site at Sanderstead, 29- 

38 
nails, 33, 35 

pottery; castor ware, 37; coarse 
ware, 37-8, 101; Samian ware, 
37 

Rood picture, 105, 107 

Roots, W. H., 2 

Rope, Bronze Age, 14 

Royal arms (1718), 48 

Rycroft, Charlotte, 96; Sir Nicholas, 
96 



Scott, Sir George Gilbert, architect, 

84 
Scale, 88, 99-100; continuation of 

North Downs Trackway west- 
wards from Whiteways End 

House, 19 
Shackleford, 53, 56, 64, 75 

Hashing, 53, 56, 64, 68, 71, 75 
Hurtmore, 53, 56, 64, 74 
Sheep requisitioned, 63, 67, 74-5 

(table) 
Shere, 103 
Shudd, Daniel, see Warrants issued 

by 
Skynner, James, 52; Thomas, 91 
Smith, Sir Harry, 82; Lewis, 80, 81; 

Richard, 53, 66, 70 
Soldiers, sick and maimed, 66 
Southwark, excavations at, in 1962 

and 1963, 110 
Spearshafts, wooden, 5, 6, 9 
Spindle whorls, 13, 15, 104, 105, 106 
Staircase, newel, 104 
Steensburg, Prof., 13 
Stevens, family, 96; Louisa, 96 
Stewart, Alastair, 107 
Stiles, Mr., 71 
Stockden, Richard, 67 
Stone disc, 35 
Stoughton, Nicolas, see Warrants 

issued by 
Stubbington, A., 15 
Sturt, George, 97 
Surrey, archdeacon of, 89 
Surrey County Committee in Civil 

War, accounts delivered to, 51 ; 

see also Warrants issued by 



Sacks requisitioned, 64, 74-5 (table) 

St. Leger, arms of, 43, 44, 46 

St. Maur (or St. Omer), arms of, 43, 
44. 46 

St. Omer, see St. Maur 

Saltonstall, Isabella, 80 

Samuelson family, 85 

Sanderstead Archaeological Group, 29 
Atwood Iron Age and Romano- 
British site at, 29-38 
prehistoric ridgeway through, 29, 

36 
Roman Road at, 29, 36 

Sandwich, Lord, 84 

Sartoris, Adelaide, 82 

Scabbard, wooden, 7, 8, 9 



Talbot, Joan, 45 

Tandridge Hill, course of North 

Downs Trackway west of, 21-3 
Thames Ditton, Brook Farm, 82 ; St. 

Nicholas' Church, 105, 107 
Thompson, N. P., 99 
Throckmorton, arms of, 45 
Throckmorton, Anne, 44; Nicholas, 

44*, 45 
Thursley, 53 

TiUingbourne River, 10; Valley, 52 
Titsey, course of North Downs 

Trackway to Foster Down, 21-3 
Toplady, Rev. A. M., 95 
Tregellas, W. H., 2 
Tritton, monuments and arms, 39 



INDEX 



123 



Tritton, Elizabeth Mary, 39; John, 
39; John Henton. 39; Mary, 39* 
Tuesley, see Busbridge 
Tylecote, Dr. R. F., 16 

Utterton, John Sutton, 89 n. 

Vallance, Aymer, 107 

Vernon, George, 96; Sir George, 95, 

96* ; Henry, 95 
Victoria, Queen, 82 

Walker, J. W., 97 and n.; T. E. C, 
reviews by, 1 1 3—4 

Waller, Sir William, items requisi- 
tioned for, 58, 63, 64, 66, 68, 69, 
70; see also Warrants issued by 

Walton, monuments and arms, 39 

Walton, Anne, 39* ; Bourchier, 47 
John, 39, Philippa, 47; William 
47 

Warrants issued by Barnes, Jeremy 
68; Browne, Major General, 60 
Committee of West Division of 
Surrey, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 72 
Cowlinge, Nicolas, 58, 63, 65, 67 
69, 70; Farewell, George, 66 
Floyd. Henry, 64 ; Jarman 
Henry, 71; Jones, Samuel, 56 
60, 71; Jones, William, 63, 64 
66, 68, 69; Jordan Edward, 66 
Onslow, Sir Richard, 53, 56, 57 
58, 59. 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67 
68, 69, 72; Parkhurst, Sir 
Robert, 56; Shudd, Daniel. 63 
Stoughton, Nicholas, 56, 57, 60 
62, 69; Waller, Sir William, 53 
54, 62, 65 ; Whetham, Nathaniel 
55; Whippey, Richard, 68 

Waterton, arms of, 43, 44, 46 



Watkins, H. T. G., 99 
Webster, John, 72 
Welles, arms of, 43, 44, 46 
Wellington, Duke of, 82 
Westbrook, Captain, 67 
Westmacott, Sir Richard, 96 
Weston Wood, Albury, Interim 

Report on Excavation of a Late 

Bronze Age Homestead at, by 

Joan M. Harding, 10-7 
Weyborne, Nathaniel, 66 
Wheat requisitioned, 68, 74-5 (table) 
^^^letham, Nathaniel, see Warrants 

issued by 
Whippey, Richard, see Warrants 

issued by 
White, John, 93; Richard, 96 
Wichingham, arms of, 43, 44, 45, 46 
Wilberforce, monument and arms, 40 
Wilberforce, Bishop Samuel, 40 
Williams, Thomas, 94 
Williamson, F. J., 85 
Wilson, Mr., 80 
Wimbledon, palstave from, 6 
Winchester, bishops of, 86, 89, 92; 

arms of See of, 40, 48 
Windsor, Andrew, 96; Lord Andrew, 

96 
Withers, Richard, 61, 65 
Witley, 52, 53 
Worms Heath, 38 
Wykeham, William of, 88 n., 94 

X-ray examination for traces of 
metal, 16 

York, Duke of, 82 

Zarnecki, Prof. G., 87 n. 



Printed by 
BIDDLES LIMITED 

The City Press Martyr Road Guildford 



PLATE I 



I 






sl^s^ 




(Scale: about ^) [Photos: Miss O. B. Halstead 

Upper: — Hoard from George Lane Gravel Pits (Nos. 1092-4). (p. 1). 
Top left: chisel. Centre: copper cake. Top right: sword fragment. 

Bottom left: spear fragment. Bottom right: axe. 

Lower: — Hoard from Kingston (?). (p. 1). 
Fifteen pieces of copper cake (Nos. 506-20). 



PLATE II 




(Scale: i) [Photo: Miss U. B. Halslead 

Swords and Knifk, Probably all from Thames, Kingston. 
(pp. 3-4, 7). 



PLATE III 




752 




1063 



753 



74 5 




746 



(Scale: }] [Photos: Miss 0. P.. Hahtcad 

Upper :- -SvKARUE ADS and Shafts, Probably all from Thames, Kingston. 

(pp. 5-6). 

Lower : — Two Chapes from Thames, Kingston, (pp. 7-8). 



PLATE IV 





731 







736 




736 




lO 



742 





739 




74 O 




743 



744 




(Sralr: ]) \rhnlo: ^nss 0. P.. Halslou! 

L'NLOOPED Palstave from Wimbledon (No. 7'M). 

Looped Palstaves and Socketed Axes, Probably all from Thames, 

Kingston, (pp. 6-7). 



PLATE V 




(a) Weston Wood: Furrows. D4. 




{b) Weston Wood: Quern, 



PLATE \'I 




(a) Westox Wood: Burnished Bowl. C9. 




PLATE \I1 



13 - t -*%% \TtO<4-vr>r/vvvi •^i,-ft->iv->^<v-8->v-vt< '2tiL»\H^ ^"^Sn-vs-ieyv* t?<ASmA^ 



T*irr><'''tvii -(XsHi-rfW ^i^CKHC'\^^.-*r^-<oif^\ ^^i ^\lui& nti%n,iKJ^ ^-»S-._-i 

_ * • »- )a ' , ^ j 

,4^i>»u.^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ i 

-ft^M i^x.iii:^ — . > _. _- . J. 

'\l^»<ry^*^^ x.«V^\ o^ )Kv<Htf»>vK/NVv^ ^^^f^^^^f ivi.^^t'ft oR.)')rx4, .v^x^i^l 

fv'^CK /. fv'r^.-y.> -d a/v'^'vTO^ » ;; — _. — - — >\ 

/lD<^ci\ tfu* io< v>rj,rK ;j/-» i,*tk->^< T^i-«T» • .^^vrvvv f "4*'-** ^ tMV.>-rii ' 

-<?c>>5 >i ,«t vr.«..^>*X .yv-3--'"=>^ ^ ~ ' r- — — — 

l^'■^'K:>^^ — __ I 

- 'l^fft, ^ >^ , ' J 



The Account Book of Philip Mellersh, Warrant dated 2 October 1644 

(p. es). 

Crown copyriiiht; n-prmlitced hy permission nf the Controller of II. M. Statwnerv Office.) 



PLATE VIII 





PLATE IX 




•-» .<-' /,' -jJ':,r 



•\4- • 

Rcpruihuct! by pcniiissioii of the Trustees of the British M.t^e-dtn. 

Farnham Church. 
(a) The East End of the Nave in 1828. [b) The West End in 1828. 



PLATE X 




Farnham Church. 
(a) Foundation of North-West Pier of Central Crossing, 




(b) South-West Vaulting Shaft 
IN Chancel. 



(c) North-West \'aulting Shaft 
IN Chancel. 



PLATE XI 




PLATE XII 




Eleven panels forming an incomplete Rood picture in Thames Ditton 
Parish Church, (p. 107).